Effects Of Instructional Materials On Students’ Academic Performance In Biology Pdf





1.1 Background to the Study

Instructional media are important element of teaching and learning activities. The term instruction according to Adekola (2008) is a deliberate arrangement of experiences within the learning space, classroom, laboratory, workshop, etc. aimed at helping learners to achieve desirable changes in behaviour or performance. Media according to Vikoo (2009) is used to think about television, satellite communication, computer and other sophisticated modern technologies. Attempt to precisely design instructional media generate divers opinion among scholars. For instance, Gbamanja (2010) described instructional media as any device with instructional content or function that is used for teaching purpose, including books, supplementary reading materials, audio – visual and other sensory materials, scripts for radio and television instruction, programme for computer managed sets of material for construction and manipulation.

Onyeozu (2007) Instructional media are resource materials which help to facilitate teaching and learning. The term instructional media as described by Adekola (2008) are all available human senses, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching or feeling and which assist to facilitate teaching and learning. Instructional media are channels of communication through which information passes for usage in educational institution in conjunction with the instructor. Going through the description of instructional media, it would be observed that the understanding behind the use of instructional media is to aid learner in his learning. Barro (2006) noted that higher quality education fosters economic growth and development. Appropriate use of instructional media is important factor during the implementation of curriculum which helps the implementers to realize their goals and guide therein the teaching – learning process in the classroom practice (Shiundu and Omulando, 2009). This factor is one of the most important ingredients that bring about good academic performance of students in examinations.

Eboh (2010) opined that the basic goals can only be realized through proper utilization of learning resources. No matter how well staffed the school has, without appropriate learning materials, the basic goals of the school cannot be achieved. Agwu (2011) views instructional media as these apparatus of teaching which may include audio materials, cassette, video tapes, computer and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher. Simply put, instructional media are those things which a teacher puts into use to promote the effectiveness of instructions which also help him or her to communicate more effectively to the learners.

Nevertheless, a number of factors have been attributed to poor achievement in secondary level of education such factor is non – use of instructional media and central in the teaching and learning of Biology because no matter the efficiency of a teacher, effectiveness in lesson delivery cannot be guaranteed without the use of instructional media. Emeh and Eze (2008) affirmed that instructional media facilitates learning of abstract concepts by helping to concretize ideas and stimulate learners’ imagination. Moreover, instructional media help to increase active participation in the learning process while saving teacher energy, reducing the verbal instructions. In the same vein, Mathew (2012) stated that the use of instructional media make teaching effective as it enables learners to participate actively in classroom instruction. All these views suggest that the use of instructional media bring about improved pupils performance.

However, in a clear departure from the above views, Oriji (2011) and Ekpe (2010) in their independent studies, agreed that instructional media are not necessary important if the learners are intelligent and the teachers has good mastery of the subject matter. Egbu (2009) argued that involving learners in classroom activities is what matters most as it makes teaching learners centered. He further maintained that involving learners in classroom activities helps learners to discover new knowledge and gain new insight. From the views of the scholars cited above, there is a strong argument on the place of instructional media in the teaching of Biology to improve students’ performance hence the need for this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Lack of availability and proper utilization of instructional media in schools during teaching and learning process is the source of worry to the researcher considering its possible effects on student’s performance in the subject.

The problem of this study therefore is: what happen that students do not understand or retain for long what they are taught in school anymore? Obengha (2010) mentioned lack of available instructional aid in schools, teachers’ exposure to new teaching and learning technologies and lack of donors bodies as the problem experienced in schools and it teaching and learning processes.

Classroom has become a mere grammar center and do not encourage participation and lacks interest or stimulation, it is not based in sense experiences nor does it extend their experience. Above all, such learning cannot be permanent. Yet there is also evidence of low utilization and non – availability of instructional media in schools. Inadequate supply and utilization of instructional media have made learning more abstract and incomprehensible to students as it is seen in their examination both internal and external. (west African Examination Council) (WAEC) and Joint Admission and Matriculating Examination (JAMB). Ideally, teaching and learning of Biology should be done in such a way as to produce the desired result. Qualified and experienced teachers who have the right skills and knowledge on instructional media  through the use of appropriate teaching strategies are in order to achieve these objectives.

Based on the above mentioned situation, the study therefore seek to investigate instructional media availability and utilization in schools in Abak Local Government Area with the views to eliminating the hindrances and work towards promoting the use of instructional media.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the use of instructional media and academic performance of students of Biology in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. To examine the availability of instructional media on students’ academic performance in Abak Local Government Area.
  2. To examine the use of  Instructional media on Gender in biology in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area


1.4 Significance of the Study

Instructional media have been in existence for a longtime but they are often underutilized. It is expected that following the identification of the hindrances to maximum utilization of instructional media resources in schools, efforts will be made to minimize the effect of the available resources. Discovering from the study will guide teachers, government, sponsor bodies and donors on the need to purchase instructional media for schools in Abak Local Government Area. When the use of instructional media is encouraged, there will definitely be a high demand for materials and the producers will put in more effort in the production and even come out with more methods of applying them to teaching and learning. This may tend to expose the learners more to thinking than relying on the teacher. It will also add to the already available resources on this study.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do instructional media affect the academic performance of biology students in Abak local government area
  2. How do gender influence the academic performance of biology students in Abak local government area?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference on academic performance of biology students taught with the instructional media and those taught without instructional media.
  2. There is no significance difference on gender and the use of instructional media on academic performance of students in biology


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Instructional media:

This refers to materials which help to facilitate teaching and learning.

Academic performance:

This refers to the overall terminal or session achievement of learning in either a particular subject or the entire subjects offered.

Originally posted on May 26, 2021 @ 1:05 pm

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.