ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to find out Instructional Materials Utilization and Adult Learners Academic Performance in Eket Local Government Area. One hundred adult learners were randomly selected from two adult education centers. The design adopted for the study was quasi-experimental research design. The experimental group was taught using instructional materials, while the control group was taught without instructional materials. The instrument for data collection was computer Achievement test (CAT). The method of data analysis adopted was independent t-test. This was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study.
The result of the study showed that instructional materials utilization enhances learners’ academic performance. It was therefore recommended among others that facilitators or teachers should be resourceful in the selections and utilization of instructional materials that are useful in the concepts that they teach in each lesson.
Instructional Materials Utilization And Adult Learners’ Academic Performance
1.1 Background to the Study
The influence of instructional materials is promoting adult Learners’ academic performance, teaching and learning in educational development is certain, the teaching of adult in Nigerian adult education programme need to be properly handled. The materials used by facilitators to facilitate and drive home their points at the adult education programme of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the facilitators to the learners. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners.
They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners Yaduala (2000) instructional materials include both visuals and audio-visuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts tape recorder, radio, video television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction. Awotua-Efebo(2001), the success in the skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the instructional materials, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials Olaitan and Agusiobo (2002) also, the relevance of instructional materials to the objectives of the lesson and the ease of use of the instructional materials utilization to better the learners performance.
The performance of the learners in adult education programmes is not encouraged Ikot (2008), observed that the poor performance of learners in adult education result may not be unconnected with non-utilization of suitable instructional materials.
Many facilitators go to classroom to tech adult learners as liberal arts without any materials to assist them or the learners. Learning is facilitated when the learners made use of a least three of the sense organs namely; seeing, hearing and touching. Literature in methodology of teaching or pedagogy and instructional communication have explained and illustrated the effectiveness of instructional materials as a tool for improving learners performance in the learning of difficult concepts (Ibe-Bassey, 2001; Etim, 2002; Ikot 2008) in spite of the roles of instructional materials in facilitating learning, learners have failed to acquire the needed knowledge and skills in adult education programmes.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Statistics has shown that most of our adult education centers’ facilitators no longer make use of instructional materials when teaching and this have a negative effect on the academic performance of the learners. Some of these effect include; the learners will not be able to concretize the lesson that is been taught, they are able unable to visualize what the teacher is teaching because the learners do not have a mental picture of what the teacher is passing across to them. This makes the learners to easily forget what they have been taught in the school.
Without the use of instructional materials, learning becomes boring to the learners and they can easily lost interest when there is nothing like instructional materials to motivate them to learn so whatever the teacher is teaching them they cannot assimilate it easily. Again when instructional materials are not use when teaching it makes the learners to be passive they don’t have the chance to participate in class activities they mainly becomes passive listeners and this reduces their thinking ability and they are unable to reason out things on their own. Statistics has also shown that most adult education center lack this instructional materials in their center and also they lack trains facilitators who knows how to use this materials. It is this lack of utilization of instructional materials in the teaching leaning process that prompted the researcher to investigate instructional materials utilization and adult learners’ academic performance in Eket local government area.
Instructional Materials Utilization And Adult Learners’ Academic Performance
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate instructional materials utilization and adult learners’ academic performance in Eket local government area. Specifically the study intend to;
- Determine the difference in the performance of adult learners taught with instructional chart and those taught without instructional chat
- To determine the difference in the performance of adult learners taught with instructional pictures and those taught without instructional pictures
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were raise in line with the specific objectives of the study
- What is the mean achievement scores of adult learners taught with instructional chat and those taught without instructional chat?
- What is the mean achievement scores of adult learners taught with instructional pictures and those taught without instructional pictures?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were stated for the study
- There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of adult learners taught with instructional chart and those taught without it
- There is no significance difference in the mean achievement score of adult learners taught with instructional pictures and those taught without it.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The use of instructional materials gives the learners opportunity to see, touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the learners at different levels of educational instructions should be well planed and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significant of this study are to the learners, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the learners, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized, and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study would help enhance facilitators teaching effectiveness and productivity, this is in line with assertion of Ekwunme and Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the facilitator who will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional materials and thereby facilitate success. Consequently a facilitator who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance learners innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausible spontaneous and enthusiastic.
Oremji (2002), supportively asserts that any facilitator who takes advantage of these resources and learns to use them almost an incalculable contribution to education. He further says that instructional materials are of high value in importing information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating interest and satisfying individual difference.
The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively.
Learners will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on investigating the effect of instructional materials utilization in advancing adult learners performance in Eket local government area of Akwa Ibom State. This is because the researcher resides in this local government area and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environment, beside the study involve only the adult learners of adult education programme in Eket local government area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
There were some limiting factors in the conduct of this study which posed a challenge to the completion of the study on time. The challenges faced by the researcher were; inadequate finance, insufficient research materials, and researchers’ academic work load, among others extraneous variables. However, the challenges were not insurmountable as efforts were made by the researcher to overcome them.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
Adult Education: a special kind of education that is offered to people who are no longer at school or college, but wish to study or learn a new skill, usually outside official school hours.
Academic Performance: this is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills shown in the school subjects such as achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers.
Utilization: the act of using something to achieve a purpose
Instructional materials: what the teacher uses to makes lesson more interesting and understandable.
Facilitator: someone who instructs and teach in adult education programme.
Learners: a person studying in adult education programme.