Influence of School Variables on Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education

Influence of School Variables on Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education
Influence of School Variables on Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate School Variables And Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. It was specifically designed to investigate the influence of some variables such as:- sport equipment and facilities and qualified teachers. The population of the study consisted of all junior secondary school three (JSS3) students and Physical and Health Education teachers in nine (9) public secondary schools. A sample size of two hundred and fifty respondents were drawn from five (5) selected public secondary schools in the study area. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire for teachers and achievement test for students, the achievement test tagged “Physical and Health Education Achievement Test” (PHEAT).

Chi-square parametric statistical technique method was adopted to analyze the data collected. The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between school variables and students’ academic performance in the teaching and learning of Physical and Health Education. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made among others that:- Government should employed adequate and qualified teachers who will teach both the theoretical and the practical aspects of the subject, Government should provide adequate sport equipment and facilities that would be sufficient and available at all times, sports administrators should always supervise sports facilities provided for closely and make repairs and amendment when necessary.

 

Influence of School Variables on Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    Background to the Study

The issue of poor performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. This has been blamed on several factors which is the school variables (Ajao 2008). According to Turner (2008), school variables refers to the totality of the objects or persons that can directly or indirectly affect teaching and learning. The extent to which students learning could be enhanced depends on the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students (Nwabuene 2010).

Relating this study to international occurrence are the assertions of Tuner (2008) who reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), school facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students academic performance in schools. The researcher asserted that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students’ academic performance.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and the learning  process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classroom and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilations systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier 2002). Those factors can adversely affect students behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among students.

Therefore this study will examine the areas of school variables as it affect students performance in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school variables to students’ academic performance Oluchukwu (2006) asserted school variables as an essential aspect of educational planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well sited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained much teaching and learning may not take place. The high levels of students academic performance may not be guaranteed  where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories etc are structurally defective.

Unfortunately, a survey of the Nigeria school variable revealed that there are extremely large class size, lack of teachers, poor infrastructure, absence of sports equipment and facilities, lack of functional libraries, poor social relationship etc. (Nwabuwanne 2010); Joshua 2009).

A number of studies have attributed the falling standard of education to poor school variables (Joshua 2009; Cornea 2003). The problem this study seeks to investigate therefore is: do sport facilities and qualified teachers influence students’ academic performance in physical and health education in Essien Udim Local Government Area?

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of school variables on students’ academic performance in Physical and Health Education in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

The specific objectives include:

(a)     To assess the influence of sport equipment and facilities on students’ academic performance in physical and health education.

(b)     To investigate the extent to which qualified teachers affects students’ academic performance in physical and health education.

1.4     Research Questions

In the process of conducting the study, it was necessary to raise the following questions in order to direct the study. These questions are:-

(a)     Does sport equipment and facilities have any effect on students’ academic performance in physical and health education?

(b)     Does qualified teachers influence students’ academic performance in physical and health education?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

In the course of conducting the study, the following null hypotheses were postulate in order to guide and direct the study – these are:-

(i)      There is no significant relationship between availability of sport equipment/facilities and students’ academic performance.

(ii)     There is no significant relationship between availability of qualified teachers and students’ academic performance.

1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflects upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility  of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing student educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quiet a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools, to reflect upon the school variables as it affect students academic performance in physical and health education. It will help the government in planning for the overall development of the school variables.

 

Influence of School Variables on Students’ Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education

1.7     Delimitation and Limitation of the Study

This study covered only public secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Only two school variables were considered. These were sports equipment/facilities and qualified teachers. In the process of conducting the study, the researcher was faced with numerous problems that could hinder the successful completion of the study. However, prominent among them were identified as inadequate time frame and insufficient funding. This was why the study was restricted to only selected schools in the study area.

1.8     Definition of Terms

It was pertinent to give a clear understanding of the work content by defining some technical words used in this topic on the fact that the study cannot do without.

However, to avoid the reader going through the dictionary while reading the work the following terms were found necessary to defined. These are:-

School Variables: This is used to refer to anything or person that the capacity to affect the teaching and learning process.

Academic Performance: This refers to the level of a student ability is measuring up to the goals of a given curriculum. It is often measured using tests and examinations and interpreted as the Grade Point Average (GPA).

Physical Education: This refers to a type of education were carefully selected physical activities are used to educated an individual or a child.

Health Education: This refers to the application of educational strategies in getting people to adopt measures that promote their health and prevent disease and disability.

Sport Facilities: This is used to refer to those permanently constructed indoor/outdoor structures that are meant for sport activities.

Sport equipment: This is used to refer to those moveable materials used in carrying out any sport activities.

Originally posted on July 21, 2021 @ 10:56 am

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.