Abstract: The study investigates on Availability and Utilization of ICT Resources in Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Two (2) Research questions were constructed to guide the study. The research design adopted for this study was the survey design. The population for the study comprised all biology teachers in senior secondary two (SSII) in all the six (6) public secondary schools in the study area. The sample sizes of twenty (20) secondary school teachers with five (5) public secondary schools were selected using simple random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The analysis was done using the simple percentage statistical tools.
The findings revealed that Availability and Utilization of ICT Resources has great influence on the teaching of Biology. Several recommendations were made among others that: Seminar and workshop should be organized to teacher base on the need of using ICTs gadgets. More computers should be provide to schools to help the teachers to teach effectively. ICTs as a subject should be made as a compulsory subject to all classes at the secondary level of education. Constant electricity should made to ease teaching and learning of ICT at the secondary level. In-service training should be done to teachers to help them to update knowledge.
Availability and utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Biology in secondary schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The need for development of ICT is a global resolution and has been a subject of great significance of all mankind Olaofe (2005). These technologies have become central to contemporarily societies whether one is talking on phone sending an e-mail baking, using a library, listening to sport commentary on radio, watching news on television, walking in an office, driving in cars, one is using ICTs. The prevalence and rapid development of ICTs has transformed human society from the information technology age to the knowledge age (Galbreath, 2006).
The use of ICT in education has the potential to enhance the quality of teaching and learning, the research productivity of teachers and students, and the management and effectiveness of institutions (Kashorda et al, 2007).Education is an investment in human capital and empirical evidence, based on endogenous growth models show that human capital is a key determinant of economic growth,(MOE, 2005).
According to Ministry of Education (2011), information and communication technologies are commonly defined in Education as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store and manage information. Technologies of information and communication include computers, internet and broadcasting technologies, which is radio, television and mobile phones. It is an old as other technologies such as radio. Ministry of Education (2011) defines ICT integration as the seamless incorporation of technology to support and enhance student engagement in meaningful learning and for attainment of curriculum objectives. Integration of ICT in education is important in learning and teaching process as it increase learner’s motivation, makes students to understand better abstract concepts, allows collaborative learning and provides the opportunity for learning through simulation(MOE,2011).
The origins of computer-assisted instructions where students learn from programmed in computer package can be traced to the works of Skinner (2007) on his work on experiments with ICT teaching machines which came as a result of learning which the teacher based and did not exploit the individual student potentials. Skinner(2005) suggested that, the experimental analysis of behaviour could be applied in the construction of teaching machine. The ICT teaching machine would present a carefully sequenced set of ideas to a students and reinforce his or her responses to direct behavioural capabilities. Skinner’s ideas lead to the development of programmed learning materials (Skinner, 2007). According to Grabe and Grabe (2007), some factors influence the likelihood that ICT will be integrated in schools which include access to ICT facilities, teachers’ expertise, ICT resourcing or cost, ICT leadership and general teaching.
On teachers’ ICT expertise, there is growing and widespread awareness that the pedagogical and technical expertise of the teacher is absolutely critical in the teaching and learning Grabe and Grabe, (2007). This has made governments in sub-Saharan Africa, as elsewhere to emphasis on teaching development as the key to effectively implementing policy and curricular, to using of ICT to enhance teaching and learning to raised educational standards. Information and communication technology integration is primarily an individualized approach to teaching which allows students to work independently, developing self independence which encourages mastery of content thus aiding to mastery of learning sciences, Bell (2005).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The ICT national policy of ministry of education seems to remain at the national level without true reflection of its implementation on the ground (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2005). Despite the efforts of Ministry of Education to develop digital contents for schools, funding schools to purchase ICT infrastructure and developing comprehensive ICT, National policy to be implemented in teaching, Biology teachers still continue to use conventional teaching method in teaching of Biology (MOE, 2005). Computer for schools in Ukanafun has continued to supply schools with computers, which are rarely used by teachers in teaching with majority of lesson characterized with lectures. However, opportunities for realizing the benefits of using ICT in teaching of biology face a number of challenges in secondary schools in Ukanafun local government Area.
Availability and utilization of ICT facilities are the major challenges facing most secondary schools in Akwa Ibom and Ukanafun in particular. With a ratio of one computer to 150 students against the ratio of 1:15 in the developed countries. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the influence of availability and utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of availability and utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Specifically, the seeks to:
- Identify whether ICT resources are available for the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
- Determine the effects to which utilization of ICT has in the teaching of Biology in secondary school in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
Availability and utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Biology in secondary schools
1.4 Significant of the Study
Findings for this study will be significant to students, teachers’ curriculum planners, ministry of education and the society at large.
1.5 Research Questions
These following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:
- What ICT resources are available for the teaching of Biology?
- Do teachers used the available ICT resources in the teaching of Biology.
1.6 Researches Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant relationship in the opinion of teachers and students on the ICT resources that are available for the teaching of Biology.
- There is no significant relationship in the opinion of the respondents on the teachers’ use of ICT resources and the teaching of Biology.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encountered some limitations which affected his effectiveness in carrying out the study. Such limitations include:
- Time allotted for study which was so limited coupled with academic load.
- Financial constraints: insufficient fund was one of the major challenges encountered in the write up.
- Mistrust: the suspicion which some of the respondents viewed the study. On competency levels in ICT, some respondents were insincere and unwilling to avail information on their ICT competences. The researcher tried to mitigate these limitations by assuring the respondents on the confidentially of their identity. On competence level of the respondents. Cross tabulation was done that ensured accuracy to responses.
The study was delimited to selected secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area using SSII as a target audience.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This section does with significant terms that were used in the study.
Biology: it is a branch of science that study life and its habits.
Computer assisted instruction: it refers to techniques whereby students study individually from a programmed computer package.
Conventional method: it refers to a method of instruction characterized by lectures discussion, demonstration and home work dominated by the teacher.
ICT integration: refers to introduction, consolidation and full use of electronic means of capturing, processing, store and disseminating information.
Information and communication technology refers to techniques including computers, telecommunication and audio-visual systems that enable the collection, processing, transmission and delivery of information and communication services to ushers.
Information communication literacy: refers to the ability to accept, learn and adapt the new technology and make use of its opportunities.
Information society refers to social, business and educational environment where individuals and organizations communicate and access the world’s commercial, education and entertainment resources over a universal network linking them together.
Infrastructure refers to an integrated system of facilities to provide one or more ICT services such as computer.
Integration refers to incorporation of technology in the teaching that involves learners.
Integrated computer assisted instructions refer to a technique where by teacher instructions supplement the computer programme.
Strategy: refers to measures used by schools to improve on ICT integration.
Teaching: this is a science and arts of helping someone to learn effectively.