Relationship Between Play Facilities And Development Of Social Skills Among Pre-Primary Schools Pupils

Relationship Between Play Facilities And Development Of Social Skills Among Pre-Primary Schools Pupils
Relationship Between Play Facilities And Development Of Social Skills Among Pre-Primary Schools Pupils

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between play facilities and pupils development of social skills in pre-primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. To this end, the work provided the background to the study through the detailed introduction offered in chapter one. Relevant terms were defined and the purpose and significance of the study were stated. Three research questions and null hypotheses were formulated respectively to guide the study. A detailed literature review was obtained from published and unpublished books, journals and newspapers etc. Its review was aimed at developing appreciation on the previous study done in this area or related areas.

A survey research design was adopted for the study, a sample size of 100 pre-primary school teachers drawn from twenty public primary schools in the study area were randomly selected for the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting data, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The result of the analysis revealed a significant relationship between play facilities and pupils’ development of social skills in pre-primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Relationship Between Play Facilities And Development Of Social Skills Among Pre-Primary Schools Pupils



1.1       Background to the Study

Education is the process through which knowledge; skills, attitudes and values are imparted for the purpose of integrating the individual in a given society. Knowledge is based upon experience and therefore using play facilities is the main path to learning. Froebel had this in mind when he asserted that play is the first means of development of the human mind, its first effort to make acquaintance with the outward world, to correct original experiences from things and facts and to exercise the powers of body and mind (Fromberg 2002).

The convention on the Rights of the Child recognized the child’s right to education. The state parties were advised to provide basic, compulsory and free education to all which would provide equal opportunity to all people in the world. The convention further recommended children’s right to play and recreation activities which mostly use play facilities that enhance social-emotional development.

Play’ is sometimes contrasted with ‘work’ and characterized as a type of activity which is essentially unimportant, trivial and lacking in any serious purpose. As such, it is seen as something that children do because they are immature, and as something they will grow out of as they become adults. However, play in all its rich variety is one of the highest achievements of the human species, alongside language, culture and technology. Indeed, without play, none of these other achievements would be possible. The value of play is increasingly recognized by researchers and within the policy arena, for adults as well as children, as the evidence mounts of its relationship with intellectual achievement and emotional well-being.

Play is so important to optimal child development as it has been recognized by the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights as a right of every child (Maduike, 2013). It allows children to use their creativity while developing their imagination, dexterity, physical, cognitive, and emotional strength. Play is important to healthy brain development. It is through play that children at a very early age engage and interact in the world around them. Play allows children to create and explore a world they can master, conquering their fears while practicing adult roles, sometimes in conjunction with other children or adult caregivers. As they master their world, children play helps them develop new competencies that lead to enhanced confidence and the resiliency they will need to face future challenges. Undirected play allows children to learn how to work in groups, to share, to negotiate, to resolve conflicts, and to learn self-advocacy skills.

NACECE (2000) stated that in order to stimulate learning and health growth development, children should be provided with suitable materials and facilities, guidance and care by teachers and the community. The materials used for play enhance learning and total growth for the child especially on social-emotional development skills. The preschool children learn through observation and manipulation of materials. Play facilities are fundamental to learning of pre-scholars.

According to Lester and Russel (2010), an important aspect of education is providing a program of activities using play facilities to help in socialization of an individual. As we are living in the age of social conflict, it is highly important that teachers use every means possible to instill positive social habit in children through physical activities. Gichuba, Opatsa and Nguchu (2009) also stated the importance of play facilities to include promotion of social emotional skills and language development, that the total growth and development is enhanced by the use of play facilities. They also enhance learning and creativity in children through manipulation.

NACECE (2000) also asserted that children pay a lot of attention to materials that look attractive and appealing, that these help to increases their attention span, hence promoting concept acquisition and social emotional skills. According to Mwangi and Shigali (2009), the joy of children is to see different play facilities as they get the freedom to choose what they want. A variety of play facilities cater for children’s different interests and also for individual differences. Play facilities have profound effects on early childhood development. According to Kamen (2005) relationships and interactions between preschool children and play facilities enhances warmth, friendliness and caring attitudes among children. The play facilities also promote and develop positive behaviours, communication and social skills among themselves. The researcher found it necessary for children to use play facilities during play in developing social learning skills.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Play is one of the important ways through which people learn. It is a fundamental need for children to develop their social skills. Njoki (2007) states that play transcend political, social and religious boarders. Mitchel (2013) contended that whenever human life is found, there has to be play in some form. Today children are not given time to play because of various reasons which include parental commitment to their professional work. Many parents leave their children with house helps who take up the role of bringing up the children and some sent them to pre-primary school.

In Etim Ekpo, public schools have many children such that the facilities such as playing fields are over stretched and therefore children are left to play in their classroom, while in some schools play materials are not available at all, and they are very expensive to buy and improvise, as the sponsors determine the provision of play facilities in each preschool depending on the funds allocated to them. Due to these disparities, those schools with poor funding from their sponsors remain disadvantaged, thereby hindering the role of play facilities on pupils’ development of social skills in preschool children (Mwaura, 2013).

However, it has been observed that this shortage and unavailability of play facilities in pre-primary school has caused deficit in the developmental process. As a result most pre-school pupils exhibit unacceptable internalized and externalized behaviours such as aggression, defiance, non-compliance, disobedience, greed, bully, uses of abusive words, pushing, tantrum and many others. It is due to high rate of antisocial behavior among pre-primary school pupils that makes it pertinent to carry out this study to examine the relationship between play facilities and social skills development among pre-primary school pupils in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.

Relationship Between Play Facilities And Development Of Social Skills Among Pre-Primary Schools Pupils

1.3       Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between play facilities and development of social skills among in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.

Specifically, the study intends to;

  1. Examine the relationship between puzzles and pupils’ development of communication skills in pre-primary schools.
  2. Examine the relationship between merry-go-round and pupils’ development of sharing ability in pre-primary schools.
  3. Determine the relationship between toys and pupils’ development of leadership tendencies in pre-primary schools.
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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.