School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies

School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies
School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies

ABSTRACT: This study was to make an in-depth examination on School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies in Abak local government area. The main purpose of the study was to determine the influence of instructional material, physical facilities and school locations among others on the achievement of students in social studies. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. From the review of relevant literature, it was establish that instructional materials availability and utilization by the teacher have to make teaching and learning real and concretize abstract concepts. Also good facilities in school does not add beauty to the school and does not make students  to learn ease but also alleviate burdensome like in etching and learning process. The researcher adopted a survey research design for the study.

The total population was three thousand one hundred and two (3102) students. A sample of 200 students were randomly selected using a simple random sampling technique. Social studies achievement test was used for data collection. The method used in analyzing the data collected was independent t-test statistical method. The result of the findings showed a significant relationship between school environment and academic achievement of students in social studies.          

School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies



1.1     Background to the Study

School is one of the social institutions that is responsible for the development and training of the mind and skill of man. It is also for the preparation of man for the challenges and responsibility in the society at large. School environment encompasses the factors within the school that may or may not provide suitable conditions for the promotion of effective teaching and learning. The school environment, which include the classroom, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers, quality, school management, teaching methods, peers to mention a few, are variables that affect students ’ academic achievement. Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic achievement.

The issue of poor academic achievement of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment Ajao (2010).

School environment which also include instructional spaces planning, administration places planning, curriculum spaces planning, spaces for convenience planning, facilities planning, the teachers as well as the students  themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which students learning could be enhance depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom; availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic well being of students.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and leaning default. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2012). These factors can adversely affect students’ behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among students .

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students  ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behaviour by students  including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stresses and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teachers enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic achievement of students.

School environment and academic achievement of students in Social Studies

1.2     Statements of the Problem

The influence of school environment on academic achievement of students has been an issue of concern to all stakeholders in education. This is evident in the rate of mass failure of students in both internal and external examinations, as revealed by research studies. Despite the Akwa Ibom State Government’s effort toward the provision and renovation of infrastructures in primary schools, students  performance in both internal and external examination such as national common entrance and state common entrance examinations and other  entrance examinations into secondary schools is still very low and below expectation.   

The researcher has observed with dismay that the school environment in the study area is nothing to write home about. The school climate is not interesting for teaching and learning, instructional facilities are in dilapidated conditions, lack of trained teachers and other facilities that promote teaching and learning are also in short fall which tend to influence students ’ academic achievement in school. It is on this premise that the researcher is motivated to appraise the impact of school environment on the achievement of primary school students  in Abak Local Government Area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.