School Variables and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Civic Education

School Variables and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Civic Education
School Variables and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Civic Education

ABSTRACT: The study was carried to ascertain the influence of school variables and academic performance of primary school pupils in civic education. Three specific objectives were stated from which research hypotheses was formulated to guide the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised of all the primary pupils numbering four thousand eight hundred and twenty eight (4828) in the study area. A sample size of 180 primary five pupils randomly selected from five (5) schools as representative of the entire population. The instrument used for data collection was Civic Education Achievement Test (CEAT). Data collected were analyzed using t-test statistical method. The result showed that school variables significantly influence pupils’ academic performance in Civic Education.

School Variables and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Civic Education



1.1   Background to the Study

A school system such as the primary school is an essential stage in the educational hierarchy. It ensures among others that pupils are effectively equipped for the challenges of the present era of science and technology (National Policy on Education, 2008). To attain educational goals, the school variables such as school type, school location, teacher-pupils interaction etc, should be considered.

The type of school a child attends is very important in influencing the educational outcome of the child. For over four decades, series of studies have been carried out to examine to examine school type and their attendant consequences on performance of pupils in many states of the federation. Buckingham (2000) in his writing stated that pupils, private, boarding and non-boarding as well as urban and rural schools are different types of schools where learners can learn and achieved their educational goals and objectives. He further stressed that pupils from independent private schools are more likely to achieve higher end of school scores. Studies have also shown that pupils that attend private school are academically higher than pupils from public schools because they have good qualified teachers, good infrastructure and conducive school environment.

Public schools on the other hand enroll more pupils than they can cope and that has contributed in no measure to poor performance of pupils compared to private schools. However, Ajayi (2004), found out that school types make a difference in pupils academic performance. Considering the location of school for decades now studies have suggested the importance of school as a social environment of learning. Some of these studies examine location planning and their attendant consequences on academic performance of pupils in various states of the federation. The studies were intended to decide where a particular school should be located; the size of the schools in each location; whether a new school should be built or not Mbakwe (2006).

Tanimowo (2005) observes that the distribution of public primary school in the State shows disorder, lack of planning and inefficiency. Onokerhoraye (2004) emphasizes that lack of suitable school location has contributed. Writing on the importance of school, Ogoawo (2009) found out that it is one of the potent factors that influence the distribution of educational resources and academic performance of pupils. Throwing light on locational influence, Mbakwe (2006) conceptualized urban school location as those environments with high population density containing a high variety of beauty and common place views. He further identified the rural school location as being characterized by low population density containing a low variety and isolated place views. Owolabi (2000) accentuated that our highly qualified teachers prefer to serve in urban centres rather than rural areas as a corollary of the above.

Orebiyi (2001) stated that teachers do not accept posting to the rural schools because their conditions are not up to the expected standard are virtually restricted as a result of inadequate amenities, facilities are deficient, play ground are without equipment, and libraries are not equipped while laboratories are full of improvised materials. Hence, to achieve a qualitative and improved academic performance of pupils in civic education, school variables must be thoroughly considered. Therefore, this work seeks to investigate how school variables such as school, location and school types influence the academic performance of primary school pupils in civic education in Nsit Ibom Government Area.

School Variables and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Civic Education

1.2   Statement of the Problem

In educational system, success is measured by academic performance or how well a student meets the standard set out by the institution. The menace of failure among the youth school pupils has stared the parent’s government and stakeholders in the face.

There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of equality man-power resources. Most pupils in Primary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in civic education subject.

Many researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of primary school pupils.  Ogbemudia and Aisas (2013) reported back of good home foundation for pupils as cause of poor performance by pupils. Achieng (2014) found home factors, pupils’ factors and institutional capacity as the causes while, Adesehimwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in child, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downward trend. Hence, this study seeks to examine the influence of school location on the academic performance of primary school pupils in civic education in primary school in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

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