ABSTRACT: The study was to examine the Supervision of Instruction and Teachers Teaching Effectiveness. To this end, the work provided the background of the study through the detailed introduction offered in chapter one, the purpose, significance of the study stated and relevant terms were defined. A detailed literature review was obtained from published and unpublished materials, journals and newspaper, etc. Its review was aimed at developing appreciation on the previous research in this area. Apart from the secondary materials consulted, a structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection from a chosen population and specific sample. The study undoubtedly shows that supervision of instruction influences to a great extent teachers’ teaching effectiveness in the study area. Finally, conclusion and recommendations were documented.
Supervision of Instruction and Teachers Teaching Effectiveness
1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional supervision is a constant process that aims at improving teaching by providing needed services to teachers. Improving teaching is a complex process in which many elements should interact. Teachers are at the center of this improvement process. Their acceptance of instructional supervision and interaction with instructional supervisors provide the catalyst for any supervisory success.
Supervision has its origin from the Latin word “Super video” meaning “to oversee” (Adenaike and Adebanjo, 2000). Therefore, “Supervision can be seen as a way of advising, guiding, refreshing, encouraging, stimulating, improving and overseeing certain groups with the hope of persuading people to desist from applying wrong procedures in carrying out certain functions on their jobs and at the same time try to emphasize the importance of good human relations in an organization” (Akilaiya, 2001). Supervision as a concept has diverse meanings and definitions on the individual’s needs, purposes and experiences.
The school supervisor perceives it as an indispensable force for improved productivity. The teacher and or the taught being supervised might view supervision as an attempt to harass or threaten because of the use of traditional approach of supervision by supervisors whereas supervision is a source of assistance and support needed in realizing the educational goals and objectives.
Educational supervision according to Akilaiya (2001) is the process or act of seeing to it that the policies, principles and methods established for achieving the objectives of education are properly and successfully carried out. This process involves using expert knowledge and experience to oversee, evaluate and cooperatively improve the conditions and methods of doing things connected with the teaching-learning problems in schools.
The need to supervise the instructional process cannot be over emphasized; hence Ezeocha (2005) is of the view that most of the schools activities and all the school programmes require supervision. Supervision of instruction is a process of assisting the teachers to improve themselves and their instructional abilities so as to enhance effective teaching and learning. It is a service rendered to teachers which is directed towards controlling the quality of their classroom instruction. Supervision of instruction aims at identifying areas of work that need to be improved upon.
Oraemesi (2007) asserted that supervision of instruction is important for a number of reasons. To him; “the supervisee learns during supervision, since the supervisor is more knowledgeable, he corrects and advises the supervisee. This is done through friendly interaction. It also enhances personal professional growth of the teacher since interaction and greater knowledge gained at supervision promotes personal growth”.
Consequently, due to high cost of education, stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in the school system. They monitor the teachers and their wards’ activities critically to ensure that adequate teaching and learning activities take place. Thus Parents Teachers Association monitors the activities within the school and constitutes part of the team involved directly in supervision. In the process of teaching and learning, some variables sometimes interfere with the plans and patterns of operation within the school that can be harmful to the attainment of set goals. Such variables include: teacher’s personality, his attitude to work, motivation, discipline, student’s background and environment which will have either positive or negative influence on the school system and education at large.
Instructional Supervision can be done either through internal supervisors who are Heads of schools, their assistants, and the Heads of departments, or through External supervisors who are resource persons and consultants like University professors, education researchers, curriculum consultants and designated officials from the Primary School Management Board. If there is effective instructional supervision there is a greater possibility of achieving the set goals. On the other hand a defective instructional supervision or poor instructional supervision will impede a successful implementation of the school programme. Instructional supervision is a great determinant of a school’s quality; it can affect it either positively or negatively.
Effective instructional supervision of schools ensures proper functioning and mutual interaction of all persons and materials involved in the processing of a child and harmonizes the efforts of all designated school personnel. When all resources (human, physical and material) are in place, the need to monitor the operations within the school system by all interested groups would be an effective way of getting the best out of the school system. Teaching and learning are the major activities going on within the school; there is therefore the need to supervise these major activities for efficiency and effectiveness. The positive influence of supervision of instruction brings about actualization of the objectives of education and a negative perception will stampede it.
Supervision of Instruction and Teachers Teaching Effectiveness
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The ability of teachers to render co-operative effort willingly determines the extent to which schools will achieve their goals and objectives. This is so because, it is the teacher on whose shoulder lay the actual work of pedagogy and the attainment of educational results.
Wu and Short (2006) asserted that some teachers cannot perform their jobs creditably without being effectively supervised to ascertain whether their performance meet the required standard. Teachers especially those in primary schools are expected to prepare lesson notes, teach the pupils, and evaluate their performance during and at the end of term. The extent to which teachers carry-out these functions depends on how effective their supervisors/heads perform their instructional supervisory roles. Such roles include checking on teachers’ lesson notes, scheme of work, pupils’ attendance register, lesson delivery observation and others.
However, it has been observed in the study area that there is laxity on the part of teachers in their professional role performance. Many teachers are merely staying on the job to look for better jobs outside. Also, there are constant cases of absenteeism, persistent lateness to school, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post and other forms of indiscipline which constitute a big problem to the attainment of educational goals in primary schools. This therefore necessitates the need to carry out this study to establish if there is any relationship between supervision of instruction and teachers’ teaching effectiveness in the study area.