ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of computer-animation on senior secondary school biology student’s performance in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test non- equivalent control group research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of 13,109 SS1 students made up of 5,988 males and 7,121 females in 2018/2019 academic session in Akwa Ibom State. Multistage sampling procedure was used to draw the sample size of 655 SS1 students for the study. The instruments titled ‘‘Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Biology Interest Scale (BIS)’’, validated by three experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.94 and 0.88 respectively were used for data collection.
The Effect of Computer-Animation on Senior Secondary School Biology Student’s Performance
Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and ANCOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed among others that the students taught biology using computer animation yielded greater achievement mean gain score than those taught using expository method. It was also reported that there is significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught biology using computer animation and that of those taught using expository method in favour of computer animation. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Biology teachers should utilize computer animation in teaching the subject to increase interest and academic achievement of students. Conclusion was drawn and suggestions for further studies in the related area were preferred.
1.1 Background to the Study
The need for science and technology as potent tool for a nation’s overall sustainable development can hardly be over emphasized. This is because the economic and social development of both developed and developing nations like Nigeria are to a large extent dependent on the level of scientific and technological literacy of her citizens, all branches of science have important contribution to make in any nation’s technological advancement. Science and technology is the bedrock for acquiring scientific knowledge and skills for understanding and explaining of natural phenomena.
Ezechi and Adukwu (2018) posited that the technological progress of any country is predicted on a sound science education. The implication is that for any country to attain a meaningful level of advancement in technology, priority must be placed on the promotion of scientific knowledge and skills at all levels of educational cadre. Olayiwola (2014) stressed that science, as a secondary school subject, has over the years gained prominence in the school curriculum world wide. This is because it is at secondary level that foundation for all the core science subjects is laid for further studies in tertiary institutions.
Science teaching in Nigeria started in form of nature study and the general science. Progressively, Kola (2013) pointed that science was re-organized into three subjects namely biology, chemistry and physics. Bamidele and Yoade (2017) observed that the current mode of learning in Nigeria, Anambra State inclusive is principally structured on traditional chalk-and- talk method. The expository method is a teaching method in which the teacher presents a verbal discourse on a particular subject, theme or concept to the learners with little or no instructional aids (Nnorom, 2015).
Expository method is teacher-centred instructional approach. In recent years, there has been a growing trend across a range of media to use highly illustrated materials for instruction rather than relying on largely text-based presentations of information (Obot, 2017). This trend is learner centered and among these strategies is the multimedia computer animation strategy. Bamidele and Yoade (2017) asserted that technology such as computer animation instructional packages make teaching effective as learning is enhanced with images, video and sound.
Computer animation is the use of graphics, text, video, sound and images in instructional process. Bamidele and Yoade (2017) defined computer animation as simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects. Bamidele and Yoade (2017) added that it seeks to arouse students’ interests, stimulates thinking and concretizes knowledge that could otherwise only be explained in abstract term. In the conceptualization of Owolabi and Olabode (2014) computer animation in teaching is the use of text, graphics, motion picture, background sound as well as some narrations in instructional delivery. This implies that computer animation has the features of both audio and visual presentations. The importance of role-playing in the instructional process cannot be over-emphasized.
Computer Animation package has been exploited in science fields to assist students in the understanding of difficult topics (Abidoye & Omotunde, 2015; Adegbija & Falode, 2014; Akpoghol, Ezeudu, Adzape & Otor, 2016; Ayotola & Abiodun, 2010; Gambari, Falode & Adegbenro, 2014; Salisu, 2015; Yisa & Ojiaku, 2016). Ayotola and Abiodun (2010) carried out a study on computer animation in biology. The independent variables are the teaching strategy at two levels (use of computer animation and conventional teaching method): the mental ability at two levels (high and low) and gender (male and female). Biology content pre-test was exploited as a covariate. Topics on genetics were grouped into a six-week learning package. Biology Achievement Test and Mental Ability Test were the research instruments. The findings highlighted the significant effect of computer animation on the achievement of students.
The use of animated materials reduces the learning task and time; it creates room for consistency and learning mastery by increasing retention, safety and motivation (Owolabi & Olabode, 2014). Owolabi and Olabode (2014) added that it facilitates communication and appeals to senses of sight and hearing which makes learning more meaningful and permanent. In the same vein, Gambari, Falode and Adegbenro (2014) posited that multimedia computer animation seems to attract students’ attention and increase their motivation to learn. It could be deduced from the above that the use of multimedia computer animation could increase students’ motivation and make the learning of Biology more interesting, enjoyable and understandable. Abanikannda (2018) stressed that biology helps to explain the structure, function, development and existence of living things and also provide justification for their reactions with the environment within which they exist.
According to Ayotola and Abiodun (2010) biology which is an integral part of science and focuses on living things (plants and animals), is a highly popular subject amongst senior secondary students in Nigeria. Annan, Adarkwah, Abaka- Yawson, Sarpong and Santiago (2019) averred that biology helps learners to have insight on natural and environmental concepts, principles, theories, and laws. Continuing, Annan et al (2019) posited that among others, the objectives of teaching biology at secondary school level involve the ability of the learners to develop an awareness of the environment, to have meaningful and relevant knowledge in biology necessary for successful living in a scientific and technological world and to make room for technological advancement. Biology at senior secondary school has some contents.
The topics in Biology taught at senior secondary school level are numerous. Etobro and Fabinu (2017) averted that it include; digestive system, transport system, respiratory system, execratory system, nutrient cycling in nature, ecology management, tolerance, adaptation, pollution, conservation of natural resources, pests and diseases of crops, reproduction system and classification in plants. Etobro and Fabinu observed that students perceived that ecological management and conservation of natural resources are among the major difficult topics in National curriculum. The two areas served all-encompassing and the peculiar problems justified the study of the areas.
Ecology management is the process of conserving and restoring organisms. Conversation of natural resources is the rational and prudent use of natural resources in order to ensure that the same or a greater quantity of the resources will be available in future. The essence of conversation of natural resources is to prevent loss, waste or exploitation through rational use and to ensure their continued use or availability and preserve the quality or originally nature resources. However, biology lays foundation for the study of many science-related courses such as Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Laboratory Sciences, Physiotherapy, Agriculture, Biochemistry and Microbiology among others in tertiary institution. Hence, achievement of students in Biology is very important as the subject is foundation to career in many science-related courses.
The term ‘academic achievement’ has been variously conceptualized. However, the multiplicity of the definition has always pointed to one direction; that it is extent of attainment of predetermined education objective which is determined by scores (grade). Ikwuka and Samuel (2017) defined academic achievement as the outcome of education which indicate the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals and this is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment. It is the knowledge attained and skills developed by students as a result of learning experience in a subject. It is usually determined by test and examination scores of students.
In the same vein, Ouma and Munyua (2018) defined academic achievement as the extent to which a student has achieved the educational goals and is measured by examination or continuous assessment test through the grading system. Arguing in the same line, Omomia, Chimezie and Akinwale (2014) defined academic achievement as the display of knowledge attained or skills developed in the school subjects which is commonly measured by examination scores or continuous assessment scores. In the context of this study, students’ academic achievement is the sum of the scores obtained by students in a given test or examination.
Yearly reports in public examination indicated low academic achievement of students in Biology. Statistics from West African Examination Council (WAEC, 2015; 2016; 2017) revealed that students’ achievement in biology was very poor and that students failed to obtain grades at credit level and above, which would qualify them for University admission in biology and other science related disciplines (Chief Examiner’s Report, 2017 cited in Okoye & Onwuachu, 2018). This is buttressed by Chibabi,. Umoru, Onah and Itodo (2018) who pointed out that there is an indication also that a good number of candidates could not do well in practical examinations like in Biology because they lack the basic skills for carrying out simple experiments. The basic skills for carrying out simple biological practical and experiments could be enhanced when the teaching method captured the students’ interest.
There are many definitions given by different scholars in regards to interest based on their perception of the subject matter. For instance, Adu-Gyamfi (2013) defined interest as the cognitive and affective state of the students with respect to their experience with the environment that supports the teaching and learning of science. Students’ interest in Biology could influence how they interact in class during teaching of the subjects. Students with certain interest who are exposed to a Biology concept that matches the particular interest, may be motivated to actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
According to Okwara and Upu (2017), interest is the students’ reactions, feeling and impression about subject contents and concepts as well as related tasks. However, there have been contradictory reports on research findings regarding the effect of interest on students’ academic achievement in Biology. For instance, Adekunle and Femi-Adeoye (2016) reported that there was significant relationship between students’ interest in Biology and their academic achievement in the subject. This corroborated the finding of Agbaje and Alake (2014) who reported that there was significant relationship between students’ interest and their academic performance in biology.
On the contrary, Abanikannda (2018) reported that there was no effect of students’ interest on students’ academic achievement in Biology. This shows that effect of interest on students’ academic achievement in Biology have not provided consistent and conclusive positive results. As a result of these controversial findings, the need arised for further studies to take students interest and academic achievement in biology into consideration in an attempt to provide more evidence data from the perspective of Akwa Ibom State. Arousing students’ interest could inculcate scientific spirits and attitudes in them, which is likely to enhance their mastery of Biology concept irrespective of their gender.
The Effect of Computer-Animation on Senior Secondary School Biology Student’s Performance
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The persistent poor performance of students in biology in both internal and external (SSCE) examination have been a source of worry to researchers, science educators, parents and even the students themselves. One may suspect that the unsatisfactory academic achievement and low interest in biology may be attributable to the expository teaching method often employed by the teachers despite its succinct advantage for teaching large classes. Expository method of teaching limits the room for learners’ active participation in the instructional process, seldom takes into account individual differences, makes pupils uninterested in class, discouraged and bored.
The researcher is worried that if the expository method of teaching biology remains as it is presently, students in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State secondary schools may continually lag behind in biology. Thus, researchers have continued to seek better ways of teaching using computer animation.
Computer animation could make learning more interesting, realistic and appealing. It could be used by teachers to aid discussion and clarification of issues to make learning more understandable to students. However, literature available to the researcher indicated that majority of researches focused on effect of computer animation on secondary school students’ interest and academic achievement in different subjects. None of the studies on computer animation was conducted in relation to Biology in Akwa Ibom State. It has thus become necessary for the present study to investigate the effect of computer-animation on senior secondary school biology student’s performance in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.