Availability and Utilization of Local Resources and the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

Availability and Utilization of Local Resources and the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

ABSTRACT: The study examined availability and utilization of local resources and the teaching of biology in secondary schools. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A review of related literature was used as a guide in establishing principles for the study. The study population consisted of all senior secondary two (SS2) Biology students. A total number of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents formed the sample size for the study. The selection was done using stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments (questionnaire and Biology Achievement Test (BAT) were used for data collection the instruments were validated by the researcher’s supervisor. Data collected was analyzed using independent t-test statistics.

Availability and Utilization of Local Resources and the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

The findings of the study revealed that students taught Biology with the use of Local resources performed better than those taught without it. The findings also reveal that male student’s performance better than their female counterparts in Biology when taught with Local resource.




Modern Science is the term base upon which modern advances in Technology depends. Many breakthroughs that man has recorded in the quest to improve his life were achieved through the knowledge of science, it therefore became pertinent that science be taught at all levels of education. At the Senior Secondary level science is departmentalized into biology, chemistry and physics.

Biology which is the study of different forms of living things, their evolution, structures, functions, growth, distribution and taxonomy occupies a unique position in the Secondary School science curriculum. It serves as a pre-requisite to the study of other lucrative and challenging professions like; medicine, nursing, pharmacology, biochemistry, agriculture among others. The vital role of the study of this discipline in the economic, industrial and the life of the learners and the general humanity cannot be overstressed (Ibe and Ukpai 2013; Akambi and Kolawole, 2014).

Biology as a Science subject is based on practical and experiment. Its objectives as contain in the National policy on education (FRN, 2013) include among others to equip learners with meaningful and relevant knowledge of biology, adequate laboratory and field skills, it is only through utilization of resources that the above objectives and goals can be achieved. Unfortunately, the teaching and learning of biology over decades is yet to adequately meet the expectation of the people in the above areas. This is evident in the overall poor Biology resources that have been identified as part of the teaching learning facilities teachers and Students use to express ideas without difficulties, thus making the lesson interesting, motivating and easy to understand.

According to Agun (2013), learning can be reinforced by the teacher using teaching resources within our environment. From other environment, it is possible to obtain local materials which stimulate, motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention during the instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are done as far as biology as a subject is concern in schools.

Mapaderum (2012) and Oni (2015) also emphasized that the availability and utilization of local resources and adequacy of these resources promote effective teaching and learning activities in Schools while inadequacy affect the academic performance negatively. Several attempt has been extended by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) to train Secondary School teachers on improvisation technique in various science subjects including biology, hence there is need to evaluate how far that teachers have been able to improvise materials for effective teaching and learning of biology. Local resources simply refers to resources that are locally made for the purpose of imparting knowledge in the learners and at most time where the original materials are not available, these local resources include the use of tine grinded stick as a meter rule, use of glass cup as a beaker, the moulding shape using Clay, drawing of plant and animal cells using cardboard papers, the use of watch in place of stop watch, the use of stove in place of bursen burner, the use of transparent glass container in place of aquarium.

Akan (2012), specifically notes that whenever teachers taught with same teaching resources, their students are more stimulated because the learning aids used make the learners (Students) to become more attentive. In addition, students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they teach. With this, student participate actively in class activities. This in-turn enhanced a better academic achievement in biology in Secondary Schools.

In the opinion of Agun (2013), there is need for teachers to improvise teaching resources for effective delivery of lessons effectively in the classroom. Accordingly, the dwindling of economic fortune of the Country makes it imperative that biology teachers should improvise teaching resources using resources available within the local environment. Most Secondary Schools cannot afford to depend on imported materials, hence there is need for teachers and their students to use locally made teaching and learning materials. Local resources from the immediate environment used by the teachers in the teaching learning process have strong impression on the minds of the Students. Its effect on the Students helps to bridge the gap between reality and abstract.

According to Ogunbi (2011), when teaching resources are from the immediate environment and use effectively it makes learning more interesting and lively. It also helps to retain the interest of the learners during the delivery of biology lesson in the classroom. As put forward by Akan (2012), improvised teaching resources are relatively cheaper than the imported or standard resources. They are easily available for use by biology teachers. Also improvisation of teaching resources by the teachers creates an opportunity for Students to participate in the provision of teaching materials. It affords Students the opportunity to exhibit such creative skill while participating in the provision of some of the teaching resources use for the delivery of biology lessons. This will aid greatly in their academic achievement.

Moreover, Students interpret instructional activities in terms of what they already know, they actively seek to relate new concepts, attitudes or skills on their prior set of concepts, attitudes or skills. Therefore for better outcome of teaching and learning processes two components should be considered which are input and outputs. Inputs consist of human and materials resources while outputs are goals realization of teaching learning process. These human and material resources which are termed instructional resources are important to the teaching of biology in the school curriculum. This resources arouses Student interest and at the same time helps train learners to think things out themselves in depth understanding of such lesson and makes learning interactive thereby motivating them to learn.

Therefore, this research shall attempt to find out local resources utilization and Students academic performance in biology in Ini local Government Area.

Availability and Utilization of Local Resources and the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools


The continuous record of Students poor attitudes toward the study of biology is a serious problem in the Nigeria educational system, most especially at the Secondary School level. Many factors have been blame for this among them is unavailability and utilization resources. Though much attention has been given to the issue of teaching effectiveness in biology. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all educational stakeholders over the years. It was observed that Student usually fail examination owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching materials for instructional delivery.

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills, and attitudes from the teachers to the learners. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. The effect of availability and utilization of local materials on teaching and learning verbally we learn and remember 10 of what we hear 40 of what we discuss with others and as high as 80 of what we experience directly or practice. It was on the background that the researcher was interested to carry out the research in other to determine whether local resources are available and fully utilized in the teaching of biology in Secondary Schools.

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.