ABSTRACT: This study investigated Methods of Teaching and the Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools. A total number of one hundred and eighty (180) students in SS2 from randomly selected schools was used in the study. Questionnaires instrument was used to collect data. Analysis of data was done by calculating the responses of students using simple percentage. Findings revealed that the fact that demonstration method of teaching chemistry will bring about very effective learning among the students. The study also revealed that guide-inquiry method of teaching when applied properly by the teachers will influence the learning process positively.
Methods of Teaching and the Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the field of educational research. Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in students learning.Teaching involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn. According to Ibe-Bassey (2015), the skillful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the caliber of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that coupled with appropriate instructional materials, right choice of methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies at all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.
There are many definitions of teaching method by different authors. Teaching method can be defined as a practical application of teaching principles based on the nature of learner, the nature of the subject and the learning needs of the students/students. According to Oyekan (2014), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. Some of the methods that are applicable to secondary Schools level of education include discussion method, Supervised Activity method, Activity method, Inquiry method, Games method, Excursion method, Storytelling method, Pictorial method and inquiry method.
The success of teaching always lies mainly on the know-how of the subject involved and the use of appropriate method(s) that is required per time during the process of transfer of knowledge. A successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process. Vin-Mbah (2012) cited South and Laslett (1993) and Oyekan (1994) who described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth. Teaching is also as an attempt to help someone acquire or change, some skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students.
Effective teaching involves informing and explaining stimulating, direction, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others. Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either nursery or primary education uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.
It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out. Ckenzie, et al (1980) in Adesanya (2016) argues that the objectives of the teacher should also be considered before the selection of any method. This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method. The study therefore sought to find out the influence of teaching methods and students’ academic performance in Chemistry in secondary schools.
Methods of Teaching and the Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many methods of teaching exist in education. All the strategies are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate methods. Also the methods used in teaching the young ones are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.
Having a sound foundation at the formative stage of a child to a large extent portends quality primary education and later secondary education. Right from pre-primary school, child’s interest, learning outcomes and attitudes are significantly determined by teacher use of appropriate methods. Thus, in view of the significance of teacher as facilitator of learning through use of relevant methods, the study investigated the impact of discussion, cooperative, inquiry, inquiry, lecture and conventional methods on students’ learning achievements in the rudiments of Chemistry
Teaching at any level of education has the sole purpose of ensuring that all learners can acquire information and apply those skills. Therefore, it is incumbent upon all educators to not only know their teaching style so that teaching has a two-fold purpose where teachers teach and students learn. Consequently, knowing how your students learn and what strategies best fit your classroom and school are fundamental in the process of learning. As a result, the question that arises in education is what those effective teaching methods are.