1.1 Background of the Study

Home is the first and the most significant place for the child’s inclusive growth and development. It provides not only the hereditary transmission of basic potentials for the child but also the favourable environment in terms of interpersonal relationship and cultural pattern.

However, education like in school at home must also strive to achieve the desired objective in principles with constructive ways of perceiving and making self meaning. However, educational psychologist broadly maintained that in education development of a child, home and school are the twin that play complimentary roles and also towards the social bringing of the children in the society. Omebe (2002) agreed on the ideology that, home is the forerunner of the school, He also expressed that; the home and school are the two notable institutions that cultures a child to be what he/she is in the society.


Egboh and Igba (2003) in their personal reflection added that the homes are the two stages that combined efforts to propagate a child or children to face the challenges in his or her lives in the society. Okpahone (2002), Stated that home is the basic education formation, while school is responsible for the addition and supplement. Therefore, if the foundation laid by the home is fragile, the child may not stand firm and benefit adequately from the primary school education.

Also WIlkai (2000) believe that many educational authorities have sought to find out reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of primary school pupils. Accordingly, Uwafoul (2008) has attributed this development to poor personal institutional factors. The personal factors include the level of individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability on the part of the teacher, while institutional factors are parental influence.

 Olayuika (2007) pointed out that the parent’s are the bed rock of any meaningful and developed society. Obayan 13) observed that a stable and well developed childhood can be guaranteed by a stable parenthood. The current challenges that have negatively affected their academic performance in the learning of mathematics in primary schools, this observation agrees with the report of Adequika (2009) that unnecessary behavior arise when the parent’s lack responsibility of their parenthood and that children that were raised from economically disadvantaged background are likely to have poor academic performance because they lack some basic and valuable amenities such as food, clothing and shelter; the saddest of it all, is that we have all the teaching facilities and equipments with modern infrastructures, more qualified and experience teachers that we had in the past, more improved effective teaching methods and strategies and all facilities as well as basic amenities one could need for effective learning, the question that arises now is with all these facilities, why is our education falling continuously in the system today?

The research deems it fit to research on this variables that buy a delinquency into our educational system, the fact is that some extremely bad, when such variables variations in scores are traced, it is more often unconcern that parental background is the major contributory factors.

Eyake (2004) Stated that a child whose parents take a great deal of interest in what he/she does at school and give his/her the necessary supports by providing all the required books and finances and such a child is likely to excel more than a child whose parents do not give such incentives and encouragement.

More so, pupil’s attitudes to learning and educational performances are shaped by the kind of stimulus offered to them in their various homes, the families’ parentally socioeconomic background, parental level of education, and parental occupations. It is therefore, evident that pupil’s academic performance in government is contingent on the stimulus the parent’s offers.

Adeyeme (2012) says that the parents fail to provide the child with the necessary equipment to fit him into his proper place in society and guide him properly for his/her future career, then the child’s will damaged is future career if he/she is not guided. An analysis of the percentage of primary school dropouts today entails that such pupils are usually from poor or broken home.

Furthermore, Adu (2016) points out that economics position of parent’s is one of the major factors that can influence greatly the academic upbringing of a child, in most families either of some of parents may be earning income enough to sustain the home, faced with malnutrition and other emotional and psychological effects, the mental development of the child would be greatly retarded.

Orhanger (2011) adds that low income parents with plenty of feeding problems may prove pupil’s who physical and mental development poses real challenge    to the schools effort at optimum development of the child. It is therefore that this research work intended to explore the degree to which these useful influences the academic performance of pupils, with useful suggestions that would help in addressing this problem, since the greatness of any nations depends on the genius, quality, attitude and aspiration of the citizens.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

The study was to determine the impact and the effect of Home variables and Academic Performance Pupils in Mathematics in Primary Schools. Rampant mathematics failure among pupils in examination and low academic performance in test has always been the attribute of pupils. Pupils are also involved in examinational malpractices even in this early stage of their ac academic career, the attitude toward their studies and school activities were very poor; the general influence which lead to some of these problems were due to parental background and socio-economic background of parent’s.

Research has proved that poor parental background is an hindrance to student performance in mathematics, some differences which influences pupil’s academic performance such as lack of payment of their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some pupils have problem with provision of school uniforms, but other do not. Likewise, some pupils were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books for writing.

Since poor parental background and poor performance have a long standing disease, therefore, this research work was carried out to investigate remote cause on how the effect of poor performance could be address on the learning of mathematics with the view of proffering effective methods for addressing this problem. It is against this background the researcher is interested to to investigate the relationship between home variables and academic performance of students in mathematics.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.