Influence of demonstration method on academic performance of students in Biology

Influence of demonstration method on academic performance of students in Biology
Influence of demonstration method on academic performance of students in Biology




1.1 Background to the Study

It is now being recognized that there are better ways to learn than through the traditional methods ( Wood and Gentile.(2006). Educators are beginning to show an increased awareness of the importance of the way students learn.

Many of the standard methods of conveying knowledge have been shown to be relatively ineffective on the student’s ability to master and then retain important concepts.

Learning through some methods of teaching is passive rather than active. The traditional method’s (lecture, laboratory, recitation) do not tend to foster critical thinking, creative thinking, and collaborative problem solving Blair, Schwartz, Biswas and Leelawong (2007).


Nevertheless, no one can deny that schools are becoming diverse needs of their students. Educators confront classrooms in which different students exhibits assorted academic and behavioural characteristics and they  are increasingly looking for successful instructional and classroom management techniques Tournaki and Cricitielo. (2003), Carrve,(2005).

Many countries in the world want all their citizens to be educated, also education professionals are seeking research supported practices that are applicable in classrooms and can facilitated student’s access to the mastering of concepts in Biology, hence the need to introduce modern instructional method- demonstration method that do not only create co-operative pleasant atmosphere but enhance peer relations and also increase academic performance of students.

Demonstration method has been shown to be effective both large and small groups. The greater the degree of participation and sensory involvement by the learner, the more effective learning will be. Newby, Stepich and Lehman (2006) identified ways teachers can improve the use of demonstration method in the classroom. They suggest that teacher should allow students to use several senses by allowing them to see, hear and possibly experience.

Also ideas, should be presented to stimulate interest. If these precautionary measures are not taken, demonstration can limits students participation.


Uhumuaubi and Mamudu (2009) found that demonstration method of teaching is sensitive to gender. They reported that exposing students to demonstration method yielded a better performance for male students than their female counterparts. It is therefore necessary to  verify such claim. In this study gender is one of the moderating variables because, it is important to find out if the treatments are sensitive to gender.

Gender has remained a burning issue and has also remained relevant in education because it has been linked to achievement and participation in certain professions Sotonade (2004). Certain cultures restrict particular gender to certain professions like farming, engineering and trading Olatine and Afuwape,(2004).  Therefore, using gender as a moderating variable in an experimental study can yield useful practical information. However, there have been conflict findings on how gender influence academic performance.

It seems the influence of gender varies according to school subjects. For example, while Olatoye (2008) reproved, there is no significant difference between male and female achievement in science. Tamir (2004) reported, there is no significance difference between male and female performance in biology and chemistry but reported a significant difference in physics (boys scoring higher).

A method of learning is a means employed by teacher to effectively impart or explain the subject matter to his students. Instructional procedures must include appropriate method and techniques often teachers have misconceived the different between method and techniques. According to Aina et al (2005), a method is a way of doing something; it is an approach or a stand, which a teacher adopts to explain a subject matter to a group of students.

The Nigeria Certificate in Education distance learning system course being defines a teaching method as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable outcomes. Hence, since biology is important in out everyday life, the government has made it one of the core subjects in senior secondary schools. And it is very essential in Nigeria that every child learns and know Biology, it means the students and teachers must not gamble with the subject.

Teachers could occasionally allow students to work out carefully selected problems by themselves either in large or small groups through demonstration.

This then forms the background of this study to determine the effect of demonstration method on student’s performance in Biology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

teacher have different teaching method, one of them is demonstration method and the obvious limitation of this method is that; it does not allow students to develop manipulative skills in handling of the materials or apparatus visibility of details of what is to be demonstrated is not assured in large classes or in circumstances where extremely small objects are involved.

Consequently, learners with this method will end up having poor academic performance in biology. This can be seen in the poor performance of students in external examination like WAEC and NECO. Because of the above idea, the parent are lamenting about having low academic performance of their wards in school.

It is with the above, problem that poised the researcher to investigate whether demonstration method of Biology students can have influence on their academic performance.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study will be to examine the influence of demonstration method on academic performance of students in Biology in Ikono local Government Area, thus the study will seek to:

i. Determine the performance  of students when demonstration methods are used for instruction and lecture.

ii. Determine the performance of male and female when they are taught with demonstration method.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

In order to achieve the objective of this study: the following research hypotheses will be raised to guide the investigation.

(i)     There is no significant difference in performance between students taught with lecture method.

(ii)    There is no significant difference in performance between male and female students taught Biology with demonstration method of teaching

1.5 Significance of The Study

The study is therefore very important in the following ways;

  1. It will help to identify the methods or factors militating against higher academic performance of Secondary School Students in Biology.
  2. It will prepare the students for a responsible life in the society and enable the teacher to adopt the proper method in teaching.
  3. The study will be immense important to the government for planning and implementation of educational policies and programmes.
  4. Teachers of Biology will find the study very useful as it will expose them to principle of effective teaching.

Limitation of the Study

The study was faced with a number of difficulties, the researcher had difficulty in administering the Biology achievement test on the sample schools. Also finance, time and distance are major factors that affect this study.

Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to demonstration method on student’s performance in Biology in secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area. Only senior secondary two (ss11) in Public secondary school in the study area were involved.

Originally posted on May 26, 2021 @ 11:21 pm

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.