Abstract: The study aimed at examining the influence of supervisory strategies and teaching of Agricultural Science among secondary school teachers in Ikono Local Government Area. One research question and one research hypothesis were postulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for study. The population of this study consisted of all Agricultural Science teachers in all the public secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. A random selection of twenty (20) secondary school teachers formed the sample size for the study. Instrument used for the data collection was a structured questionnaire tagged “Supervisory strategy and teaching of Agricultural Science Questionnaire (SSTOASQ). The study adopted chi-square as a method of answering research hypotheses. The result indicated that there is a significant influence between regular, internal and external supervisory strategy and teaching of Agricultural Science among secondary school teachers in Ikono Local Government Area. It was recommended among others that, supervisors should work well with and offer assistance to all and not only experienced or effective staff.
1.1 Background to the Study
The major goal of most nation of the world has been the achievement of educational excellence. This is so because education has been adjudged the key with which any nation could permanently close the door of poverty and ignorance, and simultaneously open the door of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social advancement and civilization by Adedeji, (2014). since education is accepted to an instrument of change alongside the element of growth, teachers are the operators of the instrument while the students could be regarded as the raw materials on which the changes would be manifested over a period of time. However both the teacher and student’s input are quite important and relevant to the school system, for they are the principal actors on stage.
In the process teaching and learning, some extraneous variables sometimes interfere with the plans and patterns of operation within the school. The teacher’s personality, their attitude to work, motivation, discipline, and school environment would individually or collectively have either positive or negative effects on the school systems and its end results.
According to Igwe (2011), to supervise means to guide, assist, direct, oversee or to make sure that anticipated principles are met. Thus, supervision in a school implies the process of ensuring that principles, rules, regulations and method prescribed for purposes of implementing and achieving the objectives of education are effectively carried out. Supervision therefore, involves the use of expert knowledge and experiences to oversee, evaluate and co–ordinate the process of improving teaching and learning activities in schools. Furthermore, supervision in school could be seen as interaction involving some kind of established relationship between and among employees and employer (teachers) they school administrators such that influence others.
Therefore, supervisory strategies are the method adopted to ensure that the rules and regulations are meeting the point of expectation. it is also the strategies used in managing the activities and school supervisor have a management role in the education system.
Okemakinde (2014) gave a more explicit definition of education as a deliberate and systematic influence extended by the mature person upon the immature through instruction, discipline and harmonious development of physical intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual powers of the human beings according to their essential hierarchy by and for the individual and social uses which is directed towards the union of the educated with the creator at the final end.
Ayodele and Ajayi (2012) opined that, a larger number of secondary school teachers are experienced and professional in teaching jobs, most of the teachers are on the teaching job, but do not perform up to expectation even though they possess higher teaching qualification. These marked informative for regular supervision so as to put them at right position not to make mistake in discharging their duties of teaching the young ones’ and laying solid foundation for higher learning. Supervision provides the basis for high performance for secondary schools which was accredited to regular and meaningful supervision in secondary school by inspectors.
The place of supervisory strategy or techniques as every vital tool cannot be undermined in any organizational setting, be it public or private, it is a form of control during which a supervisor having assigned tasks. To the subordinates, monitors and checks to determine whether or not plans are being adhered whether or not proper progress is being made towards the realization of the objectives and goals, and acting, if necessary to correct any deviations by Taiwo (2010). It is equally away of ascertaining that there is adherence to the established standards and, if not that corrective action is taken. The supervisor oversees direct activities of the workers and gives instructions on set tasks. supervising therefore involves the administrators efforts to guide the daily operations of the organization by stimulating, directing and coordinating the workers and their effort and also cultivating good working personnel relations such that everyone involved can collectively perform effectively all the function which would lead to goals achievement. In essence, without through supervision, even the best of programmes set out in a well-structured establishment cannot be effectively executed.
Ukeye (2012) opined that supervisory strategy are expected to motivate workers, co-ordinate professional development, involve teachers more in problem–solving and decision making and also try to satisfy their needs for belonging. Esteem, recognition, achievement and job satisfaction. for instruction schools to improve the supervisors must strive to broaden leadership base through the utilization of the full potentials of teachers and also ensure teachers share ideas and works together effectively as a team to increase the effectiveness of schools teaching and learning situation in order to achieve the goals of the schools supervision then centred around the teacher and the classroom and it was based on the age long philosophy that teachers being under-trained needed careful directions and training.
Supervisory strategy became dominated by the human relations approach and improvement of instruction was seen as a continuing exercising in human elections. There was as drastic shift of the concept of supervision from its authoritarianism to democratic principles where it became co-operative activity. So much concern became indispensable in the utilization of the human resources. supervisory in this dispensation become broad in perspective, embracing various dimensions of the curriculum, the teachers, the students, the teaching method, techniques, teaching aids and school environment.
The supervisory personnel has equally been expanded from one man stand to a team of experienced supervisors and titles like consultant, resource person’s and helping teachers are used alongside instead of inspector/supervisors have come to realize that they themselves cannot possibly provide answer to all problems and that teachers are part and parcel of the school organization. In an ever changing society such as ours, the educational system cannot afford to be static. For education to be relevant in today’s technological world, there is a pressing need for the curriculum to be expanded and updated and appropriate decision taken on what to teach and how to teach it. With the increasing need for appropriate school curriculum coupled with its attendant increase in content, there is need for an accompanying growth in the number and types of instructional materials such as tape recorders, instructional film and televisions. In the light of this therefore, change have been made in curriculum with a view to bringing innovations to educational programmes but some of these changes are haphazardly and randomly introduced without corresponding preparation in terms of equipment, facilities and competent teacher to handle the excess programmes. With all of the above been established, the study was conducted to factually established, the influence of supervisory strategies and teaching of agricultural science among secondary schools teachers in Ikono Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Supervisory strategies have been conceived as the improvement of teaching and learning process for the ultimate benefit of the learner who is regarded as the pivot of education. It has been observed that most of the secondary schools lack resources and series of poor management and planning decision. By systematically, if the schools are not regularly supervised, the teachers will not be able to teach effectively in the classroom, since they will not take proper care in preparing their notes of lessons. The provision of adequate relevant and attractive teaching aids will be declined in a situation where the supervision of some teachers may tend to be lazy and of poor performance of students in schools.
It is quiet believed that, some of the secondary school teachers are helping students owing to the facts that, there is no proper supervisory in the school. By doing this, supervisory help in maintaining as well as upgrading performance standards of schools. These reforms are also inspired by the need to improve school autonomy.
Olowoye (2012) effective supervision of the school system will improve the teaching and academic environment without this, the students will be bored with the school environment and thus the instruction given them will have no effect on them. Therefore, it is through this problem of doing inappropriate supervision in schools system, the study is carried out to investigate on influence of supervisory strategies and teaching of Agricultural Science among secondary school teachers in Ikono Local Government Area.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to investigate the influence of supervisory strategies on teaching of Agricultural Science among secondary school teachers in Ikono Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study intends to:
- Determine the influence of regular supervisory strategy on teaching of Agricultural Science.
- Examine the influence of internal supervisory strategy on teaching of Agricultural Science.
- Assess the influence of external supervisory strategy and teaching of Agricultural Science.