Abstract: The study examines the effects of Personnel Management and Retention of Teachers in Public Schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. Four research questions and hypotheses were formulated and used in the study. Descriptive and explorative research designs were adopted. In a population of 5,363 teachers, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 704 teachers to participate in the study. A structured four-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was developed and used for data collection.
Data generated from the study was processed, tabulated and analysed. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the relationship between independent variables (salary structure, promotion, work condition and in-service training and dependent variable (teachers’ retention) at 0.05 level of significance. Among several factors, teachers’ salary structure should be improved and paid on time.
Personnel Management and Retention of Teachers in Public Schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria
Background of the Study
Personnel management can be defined as obtaining, using and maintaining a satisfied workforce. It is a significant part of management concerned with employees at work and with their relationship within the organization. Personnel management is the planning, organizing, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to) organizational, individual and societal goals (Armstrong, 2010).
Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. Intrinsic and extrinsic needs (improved work condition, good salary structure, training and promotion) are major aspect of personnel management in school. A teacher who is intrinsically motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake, for the satisfaction it provides or for the feeling of accomplishment and self-actualization; and it always set the pace for teachers’ retention.
On the other hand, an extrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activity/duty in order to obtain some reward such as salary and remain in teaching profession or in a particular school for a longer period of time. Effective managing and motivating teachers plays an important part in their satisfaction and effectiveness in teaching service (Marnoria & Gankar, 2009). It is pre-eminent in influencing a teacher’s behavior and decision to remain in teaching.
The effectiveness of motivational strategy may be measured based on its ability to influence teacher retention in schools. In the recent times, schools globally have been experiencing a lot of challenges in relation to retaining their teachers in school especially experienced teachers. The need may arise that the experienced teachers should be well paid before they can continue with the school or teaching profession.
Also employee retention is not only important just to reduce the turnover costs or the cost incurred by a company or institution to recruit and train. But the need of retaining employees or teachers is more important to retain talented employees from getting poached. There are many factors which show the importance of the employee retention.
Johnason (2009) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored). He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which focused on employers taking more of an interest in the employees respecting their opinions and treating them as people who have worthwhile knowledge and realized that employees feel comfortable and enjoy interacting together
Dill & Stafford (2008) indicate that about 50% of the new teachers leave the profession within the first five years of teaching. In addition, young people studying to be teachers rarely know if they will succeed as a teacher. In England and Wales, the low retention rates of teachers in schools have continued being a high profile area of scrutiny.
More specifically, subjects such as Mathematics, Science and English have been categorized by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA) as priority or shortage subjects. Additionally, schools in London have continued to experience particular shortages in teacher numbers over recent years. This is whereby about 40% of three Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) have left teaching within the first three years of employment (Woodward, 2009).
Furthermore, Woodward (2009) observes that teachers who tend to leave the teaching professions or just change jobs are often doing so because they are disenchanted, either with management and or with the workload. More specifically, the highest rated reason for leaving the profession for other work was the lack of creativity and autonomy in the occupation in British Curriculum System of Education (BCSE). The same challenge of teacher retention in schools is also felt in most of the African countries. For instance, countries such as Gambia, Lesotho, Tanzania and Uganda have been noted as to have a shortage of qualified teachers. This has been conceptualized as to have an effect both in the primary and secondary schools.
Employees stay or leave organizations for many reasons the reasons may be personal or professional. Employees who are satisfied and happy with their jobs are more dedicated and work for organization’s growth. If employees are satisfied at their job then they will stick and work for the organization. This may be translated to employees that are satisfied with their job will stay with the organization.
It may further be observed that the average rate of teacher attrition in these countries, which is 4% and this may be attributed to factors such as retirement, resignations, death and dismissals (Sinyolo, 2007). Minimal teacher retention in most of the schools in Africa, is as a result of teacher encounter with environments that lack essential professional support, especially from school leadership, organizational structures and workforce conditions that convey respect and value for teachers, and an induction and mentoring program for new and experienced teachers. Administrators have found the complexity of the issues embedded in retaining high quality teachers daunting.
Oluwadamilere (2012) noted that motivating employees have become one of the most significant activities for human resource management vis-a-vis teacher’s personnel management. Poor remuneration and social conditions accorded to the teaching profession have led to the popular adage “teachers rewards are in heaven”. Huno (2010) noted that the working environment of the school teacher has significant impact on their job satisfaction and effectiveness (productivity).
In the words of Oluwadamilere (2012), employees (teachers) could be creative, resourceful, and enterprising and result oriented if they are content and satisfied with the environment in which they work. Human Resource Management practice is directed not only to top management needs, but to the human resource, that is, the employers and employees in an organization. Human Resource Management practice is proactive and not reactive and greater emphasis is placed on planning, monitoring, supervising, training and development and performance appraisal. In an organization, solving problems does not lie with members of top management alone, but with employees (thus the human resource) or their representatives
Managing teachers is that part of school management function which is concerned with teachers at work and their relationship within the educational enterprise. It seeks to bring together and develop into an effective educational organization, men and women who make up the teaching workforce, enabling each to make his/her own best contribution to its success. Management of teaching workforce involves a number of strategies that begins and maintain activities toward the achievement of personal and organizational goals.
Omebe (2001) is of the view that well managed teachers will always look for better ways to do their teaching job. They are more quality oriented and more productive. Management of teachers can be through the adoption of these management strategies; supervision, in-service training and compensation among others. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the influence of the above named strategies is bound to give all his best in discharging his or her duty because he would derive the satisfaction of being a teacher, which in-turn will attract and retain teachers in teaching profession.
Personnel Management and Retention of Teachers in Public Schools in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria
Statement of the Problem
The Educational Reform Programmes (ERP) of 1987 aims at increasing access and reducing gender gap, improving quality of education and improving management efficiency. Teachers play a vital or crucial role in the achievement of quality education. The important input in any organization or educational enterprise is its human resource. Thus, many reasons could be assigned for the failure of public educational enterprises to achieve their objectives. Among the common problems in the teaching profession are lack of adequate salaries and incentives, low morale of staff, poor working condition, weak and incompetent management staff, indiscipline, shortage of skilled and experience personnel and supervisors.
Understanding of the Human Resource Management Practice in the Akwa Ibom State will help design appropriate strategies if necessary, to enhance personnel management practices so as to enable teachers to give off their best in the educational district. Thus, the research is motivated to carry out a study on personnel management and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.