Influence Of Instructional Materials And Students’ Academic Achievement In Biology In Secondary Schools

Influence Of Instructional Materials And Students’ Academic Achievement In Biology In Secondary Schools
Influence Of Instructional Materials And Students’ Academic Achievement In Biology In Secondary Schools

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the influence of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in Biology in secondary schools. The population of the study consisted of all the students in all secondary schools in the study area. The total population was one thousand seven hundred and four (1704) students. Two research hypotheses were raised to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample size for the study consisted of one hundred (100) Biology students drawn from five selected secondary schools in the study area. The instrument used in collecting the needed data for the study was biology Achievement Test (BAT).

Simple random sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. The method used in analysing the data collated for the study was independent t-test statistical method. The result of the findings revealed that charts and models have significant influence on academic performance of students in secondary schools. Based on the result of the findings, it was recommended among others, that teachers should use charts and models in the teaching of Biology in schools as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools.

Influence Of Instructional Materials And Students’ Academic Achievement In Biology In Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are raised to impact information to students in educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, text books, magazines newspaper, pictures, recording video etc. instructional material play a very important role in the teaching and learning process.

Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. According to Obanya (2009) he viewed instructional materials as didactic materials thing which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible. According to Abdullahi (2010), instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson if intelligently used. They are objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2015).

Instructional materials have been observed as a powerful strategy to bring about effective teaching and learning. The importance of quality and adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning can occur through their effective utilization during classroom teaching. Instructional materials here include all the tools that the teachers can use to make the learning more interesting and memorable. According to Farombi, (2008), instructional materials include books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology. The priority of all countries, especially the developing ones, is to improve the quality of schools and the achievement of students since learning outcomes depend largely on the quality of education being offered. Higher quality education fosters economic growth, social integration and development. Therefore the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning cannot be overemphasized as it is crucial to the realization of educational objectives and curriculum implementation.

For realization of good performance in a school, instructional materials must be put in place and used effectively in classroom practice. Todaro (2012) noted that the formal education system of a nation is the principal institutional mechanism used for developing human skills and knowledge. Education is, therefore, viewed as an indispensable catalyst that strongly influences the development and economic fortunes of a nation and the quality of life of its people. In this context, nations, organizations and individuals spend huge sums on the provision and consumption of education for the citizen.

Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audio-visual. Thus, audio instructional materials refer to those devices that make use of the sense of hearing only, like radio, audio tape recording, and television. Visual instructional materials on the other hand, are those devices that appeal to the sense of sight only such as the chalkboard, chart, slide, and filmstrip. An audio-visual instructional material however, is a combination of devices which appeal to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion picture and the charts. Among the instructional materials the classroom teacher uses, the visuals out-numbered the combination of the audio and audio-visual. Udo (2009) saw instructional materials as devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting, organized knowledge skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). Teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning.

The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement of students (Cronbach, 2009). The used of instructional material can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher problem of motivation is essentially of the arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will goals he or she wanted attain. Brown (2015) summarized the role of instructional materials as follows. It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning. They ensure better retention by making the inaccessible accessible, they provide a common experience upon which late learning can be improved. They stimulate and motivate student to learn.

Utilization of instructional material depends on their viability in the school. Teachers often make use of textbooks, charts, models, graphics, realia as well as improvised materials (Awotua-Efebo, 2011). The success in the skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the instructional material, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials (Olaitan and Agusiobo, 2014). Also, the relevance of instructional materials to the objective of the lesson and the ease of use of the instructional materials are serious considerations in instructional materials utilization to better the learner’s performance. Whether instructional material are designed as improvised or imported, the most important effect of these materials is to assist in achieving the stated behavioural objectives and evaluation carried out at the end of a lesson or programs. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate the influence of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

In spite of the desire for technological development, coupled with the fact that Biology is a very vital subject for technological development and as such, its teaching and learning as well as students’ poor academic performance have become a source of concerns to all stakeholders. The problem of the present study is to investigate the effects of instructional materials on academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools. Most studies that look into the state of instructional materials in schools, rarely do scholars attach poor performance with lack of, inadequacy or non-utilization of these materials.

The performance of the students in Biology in secondary schools respectively is not encouraged (Ikot, 2008). Ikot observed that the poor performance of students in Biology examinations may not be unconnected with non-utilization of suitable instructional materials. Many teachers go to classes to teach Biology as liberal arts without any material to assist them or the learners. Learning is facilitated when the learners make use of at least three of the sense organs namely: seeing, hearing and touching.

For quite some times now, the teaching of Biology has suffered in the hands of un-resourceful and un-motivated teachers, especially at the secondary school level. Many teachers at this level feel that Biology lesson does not necessarily need to be accompanied by the uses of instructional materials. There has been general outcry of poor performance of learners in Biology in secondary schools in the state. This poor performance stems from the mere fact that there are inadequate instructional materials or resources that will facilitate the teaching of the basic concept of Biology. The Biology learning therefore appear very abstract and difficult for the learners as they used their sense only. It has been observed the Biology teachers find a very herculean task to accompany their lesson with relevant instructional materials such as audio aids, visual aids, visual and audio-visual aids. This is study is therefore undertaken to investigate the influence of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in Biology in secondary schools.

Influence Of Instructional Materials And Students’ Academic Achievement In Biology In Secondary Schools

1.3     Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefits to many people who will come across it with reference to teachers, school management, the students and the educational system at large in the following ways:

  1. It will provide learners with systematic and scientific basis for worthwhile functional and productive learning experience and activities naturally leading from abstract to concrete ideas.
  2. It help the learners to have access and make use of the learning materials available to them.
  3. It will help the teacher to arrest and sustain attention, present facts and information, teaches concepts and principles, guide thinking and include transfer of knowledge.
  1. Enhance prompt and significant higher achievement in learners and will be able to promote the learner’s perception understanding, reinforce and retain the learnt materials.
  2. The study will be of immense benefits to the government, ministry of education, and the educational policy makers and administrators as it will emphasize the important of instructional materials in lesson delivery.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.