Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the use of visual and audio-visual materials and its effect on the academic performance of biology student’s in secondary schools in Onna local Government area of Akwa Ibom State and the population consists of all the senior secondary two (SS2) students offering biology in the study area. The total population was one thousand four hundred and three (1403) students. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. The study employed quasi-experimental research work. The sample size for this study was one hundred (100) biology students. The instrument used in gathering the needed data for the study was the researcher’s made questionnaire called” Application of audio-visual Aids and the teaching of biology Questionnaire (AAVATBQ). Data obtained was analyzed using independent t-test statistical method. The findings revealed that the use of audio-visual aids significantly influence the teaching of biology in secondary schools in Onna local government area. Based on the result of the findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should use audio-visual aids in the teaching and learning of biology as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the learning of the Biology.
1.1 Background to the Study
Teaching and learning processes are very crucial at all levels of educational development. If well planned and directed, they are the keys to success and progress of individual. Therefore, best methods have to be used in order to enhance effective teaching and learning. Audio-visual aids according to Dike (2009) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners; they add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning according to Njoku ((2014) is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught audio-visual aids make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.
Ode and Omokaro (2012) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old chines adage which says ‘what I hear I forget what, what I see I remember and what I I know Arnett (2010, as cited in Claiborne and Drewery, 2013). A visual instruction encourages the use of audio-visual aids to make abstract ideas more concrete to the learners. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning live, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of audio-visual aids in teaching and learning of biology as a mean of imparting knowledge to learners. Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching and learning take place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study, in order word, learners learn best by doing. Researchers have shown that there is correlation between instructional materials and the academic performance of student (Oyinloye & Ajayi, 2008), (Katherine, 2009). Despite this submission, teachers in private schools still find it difficult to make use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate the importance of visual and audio-visual aids and the academic performance of student in private secondary Schools in Onna Local Government Area.
Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learner’s attention during the instruction process. The performance of student in their academic work depends on a number of factors. The provision of the right facilities must be followed by appropriate and right use to which the facilities are put. Furthermore, instructors are the key factors in student’s performance and must be well trained to optimize the use of the instructional materials to enhance teaching (Adufe, 2007). Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools. According to Kunari (2006) instructional materials are those materials used in classrooms or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by the students and teachers. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teacher’s efficiency and improve student’s performances. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teacher s and student to participate actively and effectively lesson session. They give room for acquisitions of skills and knowledge and development of self-confidence and self actualization.
Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organ during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional mat4erials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present their lesson logically and sequentially to the learners. Oluwagbohunmi & Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by the teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to student during teaching learning process. Asuquo (2007) explain that instructional materials as actual equipment used as “hand on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement.
Instructional materials can be divided into major categories, namely: audio, visual, audio-visual and ICT (Information and Communication Technology), Isola (2010). Audio instructional materials are those that appeal to the auditory senses such as radio, audio tapes, VCDs, DVD and others. Visual instructional materials appeal to the sense of sight and they come in forms of pictures, prints, real objects (models) etc. audio-visual combine the auditory and visual sense to appeal to the learner and heighten interest such materials take the form of films, television, audio-visual tapes and CDs. ICT has delivered several packages that can aid teaching and learning to achieve desirable learning objectives. These packages are found in mobile devices like smart phones, personal computers, internet facilities and the likes. ICTs provide lot of learning experiences to student with varied interest and capabilities. Pictorials illustration help to connect and relate abstract concept with objectives visual realities for the student to understand and grasp more easily the ideas represented by the invisible abstract concept. Projected visuals are able to convey information and specific experiences that are needed for the development of workable concepts. Films can modify motivations, interest, attitude and opinions.
Relia (real objects) or three-dimensional models can be effective in teaching and learning as the student learn a great deal by examining and manipulating a model.
Visual aids are important in education system. Visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage student learning process and make it easier and interesting. Visual aids are the best tools for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge. A research by Cuban (2001) indicated that the psychology of visual aids as under 1% of what is learned is from the sense of TASTE, 1.5% of what is learned is from sense of TOUCH, 3.5% of what is learned is from logic of smell 11% of what is learnt is from the logic of HEARING and 83% of what is learned is from the sense of SIGHT. Also, people generally remember, 10% of what they READ, 20% of what they HEAR, 30% of what they SEE, 50% of what they HEAR and SEE, 70% of what they SAY and 90% of what they SAY as they DO a thing. Thouless (2011) stated that the teaching of any topic will be more effective, if they spoken or written materials are accompanied with visual materials either in the form of pictures, charts, diagrams. This research has shown that even the use of pictorial illustration in a textbook does not necessarily help in the acquisition of knowledge from the text than the practical use of those materials.
Originally posted on April 28, 2021 @ 7:34 am