Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women

Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women
Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women

ABSTRACT: This research project titled “Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women”, the case study of St. Wills Health Diagnostic Medical Laboratory. The objective of this research is to determine, the Prevalence, Prevention and Control of the Hepatitis B Virus in Pregnant Women. It is also to examine the factors that predispose pregnant women and babies to Hepatitis B infection. The pre analytical process, were used to acquire blood Samples and detect the presence or absence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) in pregnant women.

The analysis reveals that there is a significant relationship between HBs Ag and other chronic sicknesses suffered by pregnant woman. Some social factors like the level of education marital status among others play a significant role in the prevalence and control of HBs Ag. In conclusion, it was observed that, these social factors are not given a considerable attention by the government. Therefore, mass education should be encouraged and sexually active persons should stick to one partner to improve the control of Hepatitis B virus.

Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Backgrounds to the Study

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substance (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune disease can also cause hepatitis. There are three main hepatitis referred to as types A, B and C these three types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B. and C led to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and together are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.

Hepatitis B viral infection is caused by HBV (hepatitis B virus) which is a double —stranded enveloped DNA (deoxyribonucleic-acid) virus belonging to the family hepadnaviruclae. Of the many viral causes of hepatitis few are of greater global importance than hepatitis B virus (Robinson 1994, Robinson, 1995). The severe pathological consequences of persistent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection include the development of chronic hepatic insufficiency, cirrhosis and hepocellular carcinoma (HCC).

More than 2 billon people alive today have been infected with HBV (hepatitis B Virus). About 250 million of people remain infected chronically and are carriers of the virus (Pride et al., 1998, Mahoney and Kane, 1999). Approximately three quarters of the world population live in areas where there are high levels of HBV infection endemicity zones, low endemicity with low carrier rate of less than 2% comprising Western Europe, North America, Australia, and South America 2-7% include Mediterranean, Eastern Europe etc. The high endemicity with carrier rate of above 7% include China, South Asia, sub-Sahara Africa, Amazon basin and Oceania.

In Nigeria the carrier rate varies with the region. Every year there are over 4 million acute clinical cases of hepatitis B virus and about 25% of carriers while about 1 million people a year die from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or primary liver cancer globally (WHO, 2001).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Hepatitis B and, of course other illnesses, seem to be prevalent in most communities in Africa because majority of the people still hold on to the uncivilized practices and superstition. Such practices influence their attitude to prevention measures and treatment which modern medicine provides. In some local communities the people tend to depend more on traditional medicine than scientific medicine for treatment of diseases. Whereas the modern (scientific) medicine relies on history and diagnosis before administering treatment in proper doses and proportions, the traditional medicine involves the ‘trial and error’ approach to treatment. Some psychological factors seem to also play a significant role in the rate at which people get infected with some disease causing agents. This has to do with one’s thinking pattern.

It is therefore necessary to seek the sincere opinions of the pregnant women within the population on the subject which is hepatitis. It was also necessary to determine the practical things that predispose a pregnant woman to hepatitis B infection.

1.3   Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study was to examine the Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women”, the case study of St. Wills Health Diagnostic Medical Laboratory.

  1. To determine the prevalence prevention and control of hepatitis B in pregnant women.
  2. To determine whether liver failure can be caused by hepatitis B in pregnant women.

1.4   Research hypotheses

H0 : Inappropriate diet does not increase the chances of hepatitis B infection.

HA : Inappropriate diet increases the chances of hepatitis B infection.

HA : Hepatitis B cannot cause liver failure in pregnant women.

H0: Hepatitis B can cause liver failure in pregnant women.

Prevalence Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus in Pregnant Women

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is set up to determine the prevalence, prevention and control of hepatitis B in pregnant women. To know the factors that predispose pregnant women to hepatitis B infection.

1.7 Delimitation and limitation of the study

This study is strictly on prevalence, prevention and control of hepatitis B in pregnant women.

Lack of finance and limited time constitute the major constraints to this research work.

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.