Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools

Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools
Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools

Abstract: The study investigated Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of four thousand three hundred and thirty three (4333) Nursery two pupils and fifty five (55) primary schools in the study Area. The sample size was two hundred (200) Nursery two pupils purposely selected from four primary schools. The instrument for data collection was Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT).The data collected were analyzed using independent-test statistical technique. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in academic performance of pupils taught mathematics using models and still-pictures and those taught without models and still-pictures; and that there is no significant difference in academic performance of male and female pupils taught mathematics using models and still pictures in primary schools.

Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools

Based on the findings, it was recommended that models and still pictures should be employ in teaching mathematics in primary schools to increase the academic performance of pupils in the subject.



1.1       Background to the study

Fostering the growth of education involves more hem teaching of facts, through the chalk talk approach but effective selection/utilization of instructional material is found to increase the rate of retention in learners. In our primary schools, mathematics classroom seems to be a venue for mere counting of numbers. Teaching mathematics is much like building a house (Gluck 2010). If the foundation is weak; many difficulties will appear later. Pupils’ understanding of basic mathematics concepts helps them move to the next logically connected concepts.

Among science and technology courses, according to the National Policy on Education (2014), mathematics is one of the core subject to be offered by all pupils till the tertiary levels of education. This compulsory nature of mathematics carries with the assumption that the knowledge of the subject is essential for all members of our society, but traditional method used in most of mathematics classes does not allow pupils enough time to fully reach that understanding.

The quality of mathematics that will pave the way for the much needed pursuit in science and technology at the higher level is a matter of concern. Mathematics educators have put up noble and spirited efforts aimed at identifying major problems associated with the teaching and learning of mathematics in the nation’s performance of pupils in mathematics. The mirrors on the core topic in geometry where problems of teaching and learning occurs most in mathematics, one of such topic is shapes. In response to this problem, there have been various attempts to make current teaching materials and approaches more appropriate and relevant to pupils by making them construct their own knowledge through the use of instructional materials.

It has been considered that since some concept in mathematics like shapes appears to sound abstract to pupils, there is need for instructional materials to bring to reality the concept of mathematics. They considered human factors as the teacher’s professional commitment, creativity mechanical skills, initiative and resourcefulness. They found that many of the Nigerian mathematics teachers were aware of possibility of instructional materials but many exhibited poor attitude towards it they also noted that very few teachers use instructional material while others claim that the use of instructional materials is the time-consuming and fund depleting (Omosewo (2014) and Akinsola (2010).

According to Churchill (2015), instructional materials utilization in teaching mathematics help learners to construct mental cognition that allow for higher order performance such as applied problems solving and transfer of information and skills.

The importance of instructional materials is also evidenced in the performance of pupils (Adeogun, 2016). According to Adeogun, schools whose teachers use more instructional resources perform better than schools whose teachers do not use instructional materials. According to Akande (2011), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to instructional facilities that are available to facilitate pupils learning outcome.

However, Akinlege (2010) attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the pupils with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Ebu, Enukoha and Umoren (2014) agreed that instructional materials are indispensable in teaching and learning activities. Ekpo (2014) also observed that teaching aids are useful in stimulating the sense organs.

Despite the fact that instructional materials are essential tools in learning and knowledge acquisition they are not readily available in Nigerian primary schools leading to low level of performance of learners in government examinations (Abdu-Raheam, 2014).

Abdu-Raheam (2014) encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great major to enhance learners’ full participation in the lesson, gives room for inquiring, problem solving, discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among pupils and teacher.

Oso, (2011) also agreed that the best way for teachers to make use of their manipulative skills is to improvise so as to achieve their lesson objectives, at least, to a reasonable extent. Correspondingly, Jekayinfa (2012) identified the importance of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substituting one thing for another, allows the pupils to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher-pupils resource oriented.

The implication here is that for more knowledge to be internalized, more of the learners senses have to be stimulated other than hearing alone. In learning and teaching, the various senses can be stimulated through the use of audiovisual materials. This then formed the background to which this present study assesses the use of instructional materials on academic performance of pupils in mathematics in primary schools.

Instructional Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools

1.2       Statement of Problem

The researcher observed that memorization of facts have replaced experimentation in some of Nigerian schools. Hence, technological advancement and breakthrough remain a hope of many decades to come. Dependency on expensive imported materials that are always deficient in supply which also makes students to view mathematics as a foreign concept that should be memorized rather than understood is the worry of this research. This is may manifest in low interest in mathematics teaching and learning.

This motivated the researcher to ask do students taught with instructional materials (models and still pictures) performed better than students taught without instructional materials models and still-picture? Do male and female students differ academically when taught using instructional materials models and still-picture? Based on these facts, the study seeks to find out effect of instructional materials on academic performance of students in Mathematics in secondary schools.

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