1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a light that shows the mankind the right direction to surge. The purpose of education is not just making a student literate but adds rational thinking knowledge ability and self-sufficiency. When there is a willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field. Creativity can be developed and innovation benefits both students and teachers.
The 21st century education emerges to meet the need of the learners by providing them with new technologies and new approaches for teaching and learning in which collaborative learning is one of them for improved academic performances. Gomes (2010) noted that the lecture-note-taking scenario in our classroom setting is no longer yielding a better productivity among learners, therefore there must be a paradigm shift in the roles teachers and learners play in the teaching and learning environment. This prompt the emergence of various teaching strategies like collaborative learning, contextual learning, problem-based learning, blended learning etc. The collaborative learning strategies based its view on the constructivist model which opined that learners must be actively engaged in knowledge construction as opposed to the passively received information which is the transmittal model. This strategy focuses on content coverage to actively constructing knowledge which gives learners the opportunity to apply the concept of 4Cs (communication, collaboration, creativity, critical thinking) in their learning. Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of students working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. Collaboration learning strategy is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together, here learners who engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, monitoring one another’s work, etc.) More specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a population where members actively interact by sharing experiences and take responsibilities. Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together. In this strategy student’s work in groups of two or more, mutually searching for understanding, solutions, or meanings, or creating a product Mitchelemore, and Kimamo (2011).
According to Slavin (2011)collaborative learning comprises “instructional strategies in which teachers organize students into small groups, which then work together to help one another learn academic content. Collaborative learning consists of five basic elements: positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teaching of interpersonal and social skills, and quality of group processing. Learning situations are not collaborative if students are arranged into groups without positive interdependence (Johnson & Johnson, 2009). Positive interdependence means that in collaborative learning situations, students are required to work together as a cohesive group to achieve shared learning objectives (Yager, 2000). In the process, students must be responsible for their own learning and for the success of other group members’ learning (Slavin, 2011). In other words, students must ensure that other members in their group complete the tasks and achieve the academic outcomes. The lesson will not be collaborative if students do not “swim together” in the group learning activities (Johnson & Johnson, 2008). Promotive interaction occurs as individuals encourage and facilitate each other’s efforts to accomplish the group’s goals. In collaborative learning groups, students are required to interact verbally with one another on learning tasks (Johnson & Johnson, 2008). Individual responsibility means that students ask for assistance, do their best work, present their ideas, learn as much as possible, take their tasks seriously, help the group operate well, and take care of one another (Johnson, 2009). Positive interdependence is recognized to create “responsibility forces” that increase the individual accountability of group members for accomplishing shared work and facilitating other group members’ work (Johnson & Johnson, 2005). In reality, students cannot work effectively if socially unskilled students are arranged into one group (Johnson & Johnson, 2006). If basic learning skills on cooperative interaction are not taught, group members cannot work together effectively to finish their tasks. Cooperative learning, compared with individualistic or competitive learning, is more complex because it requires students to engage in learning tasks and work together (Johnson & Johnson, 2005). This study therefore intended to investigate theeffect of collaborative learning strategy and the learning of Biology among secondary schools students in NsitUbium local Government Area
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the recommendation for use of innovative method for teaching and learning by the Federal Ministry of Educations under the 6-3-3-4 curriculum reform couple with suggestions by many science education researchers, result indicated that students’ achievement in Biology is still poor. The poor achievement is attributed to poor teaching and learning of Biology in schools, poor learning strategies, and abysmallearning attitude by students,and lack of interest by student to learn. In view of these, researchers in science education have continually sought for better learningstrategy that will enhance the teaching and learning of Biology, promote interest and bridge the gender gap among male and female students in the learning of Biology.Opara (2011) noted that collaborative learning strateg when fostered in different ways can ultimately and positively affect student understanding, achievement and interest in Biology. The ever increasing need for an improvement in academic achievement of learners by all stakeholders, educators, parents, mentors, guardians and others related agencies has been a great source of worry to all and sundries. Competitiveness among students is still the order of the day, just as team spirit and team work is never pursued with all vigour. The study therefore sought to investigate the influence of collaborative learning strategy and the learning of Biology among secondary schools students in NsitUbium local Government Area.
Originally posted on March 15, 2021 @ 11:58 am