ABSTRACT: This study investigated the improvised instructional materials utilization and Biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area. Two (2) research questions were formulated to guide the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. From the population of all the Biology teachers, from (40) Biology teachers were randomly sample from twenty (20) secondary schools in the study area. The instrument from data collection was a structured questionnaire tagged “Improvised instructional materials utilization and Biology teaching questionnaire (IIMUBTQ)”. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage test method. Make use of improvised instructional materials is teaching of Biology in secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area; male and female teachers differ in their use of improvised instructional materials in teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area. Based on the teachers should be resourceful and improvise some of the needed instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Biology in school system; Government should provide teachers with regular workshop, conferences and seminar on how to use improvised instructional materials; creative and resourceful teachers who improvise instructional materials should be rewarded and motivated adequately.
Improvised Instructional Materials Utilization And Biology Teaching In Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The acquisition of science knowledge, skills and attitudes to facilitate educational efficiency requires skill-oriented teaching and learning activities. Over the years, the poor performance of students in science subjects in public examinations has been blamed on the wrong choice of teaching methods by teachers. Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables such as instructional materials, school environment variables, students’ factors and so on.
Biology as a science subject is practical based. Therefore, the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools, it requires both the teachers and students to carry out teaching and learning activities using a suitable instructional materials. Archibong (2013) states that effective teaching of Biology should emphasize active learning. He added that the students must personally be involved.
Bassey (2012) noted that Biology teachers in most cases do not use instructional materials in their biology classroom. This implies that most of the Biology concepts are taught abstractly. This may because some of the Biology teachers believed that instructional material to be used for teaching the biology concepts are not available or no existence. Even when they are available, there is complaining of lack of money by the Biology teachers.
Famen (2012) stated that the availability and adequacy of instructional materials in schools for teaching and learning of science concepts like Biology was affected by several factors of which some are low practical Biology in secondary schools respectively is not encourage (Ikot, 2014). He further observed that the poor performance of students in Biology examination may not be unconnected with non-utilization of suitable improvised instructional materials.
It is the believe that abstract ideas in Biology could be made less abstract to students through the use of improvised instructional materials. It is in consonance with this background that the research study is conducted to investigate improvised instructional materials utilization and biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Improvisation of instructional materials can be referred to as the act of producing and using alternative Biology teaching materials in case of scarcity or lack of standardized ones aimed at facilitating instruction. Instructional materials has been researched to be useful to the teaching and learning of Biology as it influences the activities of the teachers as well as the interest of students (Okon, 2013). But their availability has not been fully encouraging; hence some teachers do improvise the materials while others do not. Others teachers prefer standardized materials to improvised ones.
Through some teachers believe that they can teach effectively with the traditional talk and chalk method, how has this brought a change in interest, understanding, commitment and zeal of students in learning and widening the knowledge of the teachers in teaching Biology?
In secondary schools especially in Ini Local Government Area, many teachers go to classes to teach Biology and practical biology as liberal arts without any standardized materials or improvised ones to assist them or the learners. Learning is facilitated when the learners make up of at least three of the sense organs namely: seeing, hearing and touching. This research belief that Biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area is hindered because improvisation of instructional materials were not encouraged.
Would the improvisation of Biology instructional materials actually produce the desired influence in the teaching and learning of Biology to necessitate its adoption by choice of the topic “improvised instructional materials utilization and Biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the influence of improvised instructional materials utilization on Biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study aimed at the following:
(i) To examine whether Biology teachers make use of improvise instructional materials in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
(ii) To find out whether male and female teachers differ in their use of improvised instructional materials in the teaching of biology in secondary schools in Ini local Government Area.
Improvised Instructional Materials Utilization And Biology Teaching In Secondary Schools
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions have been formulated to guide this study:
(i) to what extent do Biology teachers make use of improvised instructional materials in the teaching of biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
(ii) To what extent do male and female teachers differ in their use of improvised instructional materials in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses have been stated to guide the study:
(i) There is no significant difference in the mean response of teachers using improvised instructional materials and those using standardized instructional materials in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
(ii) There is no significant difference in the used of improvised instructional materials by male and female teachers in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings to this study will be significant to students, teachers, policy-makers, educationists and curriculum planners in the following ways:
(i) The findings of this study will help the students to become more interested in the activities of improvisation and also be able to handle and preserve improvised materials better.
(ii) The findings will guide teachers on their subsequent step or strategies towards enhancing better Biology teaching with regards to improvisation of teaching materials.
(iii) The findings of the study will enlighten the society to review the usefulness and value things in the environment from what Biology teaching materials are improvised.
(iv) The findings of this study will guide policy-makers, educationist, curriculum planners and all concerned with Biology education review or collective views about improvisation of Biology teaching and learning of instructional materials.
(v) Then findings of this study will serve as reference materials for researcher that may investigate the same variables
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study was limited to all the Biology teachers in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area. it is also focused on improvised instructional materials utilization and Biology teaching in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area. It was confined within the Ini Local Government Area only and do not extend it scope to any others Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The study had some limitation such as the unavailability of some Biology teachers in some of the secondary schools selected. The researchers had to make repeated calls to the schools in order to have access to these teachers. Another problem the researchers encountered is inadequate capital to carry out all the research procedures within a limited of time.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The under listed terms are defined as they are used in this work:
Improvised Instructional Material: This can be defined as the locally produced materials that are Utilizable in teaching and learning process in that absent of standardized instructional materials.
Teaching: This is the activities of educating or instructing the learners through imparting knowledge or skill to them.
Secondary School: This is a school in which students receive secondary education from the ages of about 11 – 18, coming before tertiary
Biology: This simply refers to the scientific study of the life and structure of plants and animals.
Utilization: The process of using something, especially for a practical purpose.