Abstract: The study investigated Home Variables and Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools. The population of the study consisted of three thousand five hundred and sixty one (3561) primary four pupils in thirty four (34) public primary schools in the study area. The sample of this study consisted of 200 primary four (Pr. 4) pupils. The survey research design was used in the study. The instruments for data collections were interview which involves a face to face verbal interaction between the researcher (interviewer) and the respondents (interviewees) and pupils’ raw scores in the First Terminal Examination in Basic Science in 2018/2019 academic session. The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results showed a significant influence of home variable (parental educational status and parents’ socio-economic status) on academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Parents should work hard to increase their income so as to assist them in providing school materials for the pupils; and that parent should provide conducive home environment for their children to read at home. Parents should also show greater interest and support to the education of their children.
1.1 Background to the study
A home is a place where pupils live with their parents or guidance and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where pupils begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2017). The home influences the child at the most earliest possible time of his life at a time when he wind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole life of the child. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self-worth and academic performance (Ekanem, 2014).
The family, being a powerful influence on the child and its importance as a primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the social climate in the family. Variance in psycho-social and emotional fortification in the home background could be an indicator to high or low academic performance of pupils, bearing in mind the intervening effect of high and low socio-economic status and emotional stability of pupils which is a pre-requisite to academic achievement (Adebole, 2014). This is because psychological problems are potential sources of trouble with learning. A child’s first educational experiences are centered in the home, his ideas, attitude and general pattern of behaviour are as a result of his childhood rearing.
The variation in the academic attainments of pupils could be related directly to differences in the home and its influence. Furthermore, in pupils home, some factors that influences their academic performances include: parental educational background, occupation, economic status, marital status and home location; family size and peer group. According to Anni (2013) the home variable means the home factors that could influence students behaviour, according to the author they includes all the human and material resources present at the home that affect the pupils’ education and living such as the parents level of education, their occupation, socio-economic status and socializing facilities available in the house.
The education received by a child from parents and significant others are home is most likely to have highly significant and dominant effects on the child learns at home and how his/her family motivates him/her towards education contributes to the child’s success or failure at school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor academic performance of pupils in the Nigerian school has a concern to the educational sector over the past few years. The pupils have shown poor performances is a great problem since the Nigerian Government has initiated programmes such as the Free and Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) with the view to improve the quality of the educational system. Through the FCUBE programme the Nigerian Government seeks to ensure that all citizens are equipped with the fundamental knowledge and skills that will enable them to be full stakeholders in and beneficiaries of development.
The pathetic situation in the two region treated has already alarmed the educational sector and they have been seeking ways to research into the causes of the poor academic performance in Nigerian schools. Based on the above issues this study intends to investigate Home Variables and Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine home variable and pupils’ academic performance of primary schools in Basic Science. Specifically, the study sought to examine;
(i) The influence of formally educated parent and non-formally educated parent on academic performance of pupils in primary school.
(ii) The influence of parent with social-economic status of parent on academic performance of pupils in primary school.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will of significant in the following ways:
- The study also gives a clear picture of present situation in Nigeria, where there is a gulf between the “have” “not” thus, socio-economic background can determine to a great extent of students success or failure.
- The study will serve as a pointer to our curriculum developers that they will be able to give consideration to pupils’ home variations in the process of formulating syllabus and developing scheme of works.
- Psychologically, high performance reinforce teacher’s confidence, this study point to the teachers the need for them to understand and not to be pull off by slow learners and low achievers based on their home background.
- It will further reduce the level of crime and social evils committed in the society by creating awareness to government for the government to provide equal educational opportunities to all children of school going age which is a good way to equal and even distribution of wealth that has a stronger effect of bringing national stability, peace, progress and justice.
- This study above all will show that due to the gross inequality or unequal educational opportunity in Nigeria society, there are low achievement waste and stagnation of our human resources. The progress and posterity of a country depends on her educational policy and how it is being implemented which in-turn produced great educators and men of higher intelligence. As a developing and progressing nation our progress and development depends on the number of our educated citizens.
- Finally, the result of the findings of this study will serve as a reference purpose for the further researchers in Secondary Schools in the study area.