ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to determine the influence of Instructional Materials on teacher’s job performance in Pre-primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. In order to achieve this objective, four specific objectives were raised which included: Identify the level of availability of instructional materials being used for teaching in pre-primary schools. In line with these objectives, four research questions were formulated and four null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is the Pre-primary schools in Uyo which was made up of 50 Teachers’. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 50 respondents made up Teachers only were used for the study.
The instrument for data collection was “Instructional Material and Teachers Job Performance Questionnaire”. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies. The findings of the study revealed that the failure rate teachers job performance and that of pupils will be curtailed if teachers were made to utilize appropriate and relevant instructional materials adequately while teaching in pre-primary schools. It was recommended among others that, the teachers should endeavour to use and try to improvise instructional materials for effective teaching in the pre-primary schools.
Influence of Instructional Materials on Teacher’s Job Performance in Pre-Primary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
A teacher is an expert who is capable of imparting knowledge that will help learners to build, identify and to acquire skills that will be used to face the challenges in life. The teacher also provides to the learners knowledge, skills and values that enhance development Ayral et al, (2014). Teachers are very important in any system of education. No proper education can ever be achieved without adequately trained and motivated teachers. However, assuring teachers’ satisfaction is not an easy task given that human beings’ needs can never be fully satisfied as the satisfaction of one need leads to the desire for another higher level need. Therefore, teachers over the world seem not to be satisfied, not even in developed countries.
Job performance is very crucial to the development of education and personnel’s in the educational industry. In line with this, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. The teacher like every other worker works in other to satisfy his or her needs Brown et al (1994).
The influence of instructional materials in promoting teacher’s job performance is indisputable. Teaching at any level requires that the pupils be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2018) noted that an instructional material in means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the pupils are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen” (FGN, 2014). The realization of this objective through is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National Policy on Education (2014) that education is to achieve the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. Therefore, teaching has been a factor in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract pupils’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.
Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio material/ equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.
The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The pupils learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials in education has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective learning of pupils in schools.
The performance of the pupils on the intended learning outcome provide the validation – loop on the success other interaction and instruction (Bakare1986).
In making use of any instructional materials factors that influence it must be considered, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified pre-primary school teachers.
The need to identify the suitable instructional materials, by which pupils can be made to comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study. An in depth look at the pre-primary schools programmes revealed that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2004). For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials and equipments for use in both the classrooms and Museum.
The broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons, it is worth investigating the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and learning in our Pre-primary schools, for better performance of pupils in their examination and chosen career in any field of life. If instructional materials are used in Pre-primary schools, it would help improving the teaching and learning and hence the learning of pupils effectively.
Influence of Instructional Materials on Teacher’s Job Performance in Pre-Primary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The job performance of teachers in Pre-primary schools in Uyo Local government area may partly be attributed to poor usage or lack of sufficient instructional materials to teach. Lemchi (2011) noted that some teachers performance poorly due to the non-utilization and attitudes of teachers towards teaching without the use of instructional materials which tends to affect pupils’ performance in pre-primary schools. Research consistently shows that teacher usage of instructional materials is a powerful determinant job performance as well as pupils achievement gains.
Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of needed tools, equipments or materials required for effective teaching. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers in the pre-primary schools (Bello, 2010). Hence, the prosecution of a functional education in relation in pre-primary schools still leaves much to be desired.
In view of this difficulties, (Omeiza, 2011) opined that most teachers of still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the pre-primary school subjects (i.e. explaining without an object to make learning real) which effects teacher’s job performance and makes learning not interesting to learners. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning. It is therefore imperative to carry out a study on the influence of instructional materials on teacher’s job performance in pre-primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.