the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in basic science
The study was designed to investigate models utilization and academic performance of students in Basic Science. In order to assess the topic, two research questions and null hypothesis were formulated to be in line with the specific objectives. The total of three thousand six hundred and seventy five (3,675) students who studies Basic science in JSS1-JSS2 classes constituted the population of the study. Two hundred (200) Basic science students were randomly selected from the sampled secondary schools in the study area. Survey research design was adopted; Basic science Achievement test (BSAT) was the instrument for data collection.
Independent t-test was the statistical method adopted in analyzing the data collected. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic science using models and those taught without using models. Also, that there is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Basic science students taught using models.
the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in basic science
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a primary tool for promoting economic development and aids people to use and cultivate their abilities (Adeyemi, & Adu, 2010). Outlook, expertise and knowledge that are important for effective living are acquired through education (Okeke, 2017). Secondary Education is a linkage between elementary education and the employment market and it is important in the training of human resource for advancement and provision of life opportunities (Onsomu, Muitaka, Ngwane & Kosimbei, 2016). Science is the foundation on which present day technological breakthrough is hinged (Igwe, 2013).
To cultivate scientifically knowledgeable students that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions is a key goal of science education. The goals of science education (Maduekwe, 2016) “consist of preparing learners to perceive and investigate their environment, elucidate natural-phenomena, cultivate scientific attitudes like curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity; apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science”.
Effective instructions in a classroom require careful planning geared towards individualize learning. Resource-based learning is the response to the need to individualize instruction. Orlich (2011), states that students learn better where instructional activities are sequenced, that is knowledge presented in a carefully interrelated steps generally starting with a simple step, followed by complex and abstract concepts.
Use of teaching and learning resources like models help achieve this objective as learning proceeds from the known to the unknown. This inductive method of learning where reasoning progresses from specific to general constitutes effective learning. Deductive reasoning on the other hand involves mostly lecture methods where learning proceeds from general to specific with little or no resources required for effective learning. A rich Basic Science lesson requires integration of resources for proper understanding of concepts.
Beswick (2015), says that when sufficient range in suitably graded aid becomes available, it makes lockstep advance unnecessary as it discourages uniformity of opinion by learners enabling teachers to have a real opportunity to individualize learning. When this happens he adds, increasing number of students will reach more and more objectives. Model is also seen as a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modeled may be small (for example the eye) or large (For example, the human skeleton). Models should incorporate all teaching resource which provides direct and concrete experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional process (Nicholas, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In educational system, success is measured by academic performance or how well a student meets the standard set out by the institution. The menace of failure among the young school students has stared the parent’s, government and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources. Most students in secondary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in Basic science subject.
Many researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of secondary school students. Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013) reported lack of good home foundation for students as cause of poor performance by students. Achieng (2014) found home factors, student’s factors and institutional capacity as the causes while, Adesehimwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in child, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downward trend. Hence, this study seeks to examine the influence of model resources on the academic achievement of students in Basic science in secondary schools. This motivated the researcher to investigate on the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Basic science in the study area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study sought to investigate the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Basic Science. To achieve the above general purpose, the study specifically:
(i) Examined the effect of the use of models on the academic performance of students in Basic Science.
(ii) Assessed whether there could be any significant difference in performance between male and female students when taught Basic Science using models.
1.4 Significance of the Study
No teaching can be done effectively without the use of instructional materials in the teaching of that particular subject in schools. Instructional materials are of great importance to teachers and learners due to the fact that, they make abstract lesson real, practical and so enhance the understanding of the subject:
(i) This study significantly will help government, educational planners as well as other philanthropic organizations to know the need for the provision of quality and quantity facilities adequate for Basic Science as it will help students to be self-reliant.
(ii) It will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among Basic Science teachers as they will have to think of and select relevant materials for utilization during the teaching learning process.
(iii) The study will be of great significance to future researchers who may wish to carry out more studies on topics related to models utilization.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study
- To what extent does the mean performance of students differ between those taught skeletal system with models and those taught the same concept without the utilization of models.
- To what extent does the mean performance of male students differ between that of females when taught skeletal system with the utilization of models
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the purpose of the study to guide the study;
(i) There is no significant difference in the mean performance of students taught Basic Science using models and those taught Basic Science without models
(ii) There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Basic Science Students taught using models.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study was faced with a number of difficulties. The researcher had difficulty in administering the research instrument on the selected schools due to the location of the schools. Also lack of time due to researcher workload and financial constraints were the major factors that affect this study.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Due to certain constraints like time, the study was delimited to Model resources utilization, and only selected secondary schools in the study area were involved in the study.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined as used in the study:
(i) Model: A model is a visual aid or picture which highlights the main ideas and variables in a process or a system. Models include words or diagrams intended to give an understanding of the variables associated with school learning. Model is also a recognizable 3-dimensional likeness of representation of the real thing.
(ii) Academic Performance: This refers to the Child’s examination scores or result in school.
(iii) Basic Science: is the study of life (plant and animals).