Infidelity of Pastors: An examination of it’s causes and it’s effect on the Nigerian Church
The main objective of this study was to find out Infidelity of Pastors: An examination of it’s causes and it’s effect on the Nigerian Church. Research questions were set to guide the study. Related literature from authors was reviewed. The research design used in this study is the cross sectional survey. The population of this study comprised all the church members who are of the age of 17- 65 and above in selected five (5) churches in the study area. The sample size of this study comprise of three hundred and forty (340) church members selected from the population of the study. The main instrument used for the collection of data from respondents was the interview. The researcher designed the in-depth semi-structured interview questions based on the research questions. The researcher employed semi-structured interviews to collect data as they are regarded as most valuable in qualitative studies. The qualitative data from the in-depth interview were analyzed using the descriptive method of qualitative data.
In recent times, the ever-increasing number of divorce have been posing a serious threat to the marriage institution which is valued very highly by all human cultures and religious traditions. Dominion explained that a careful examination of the contemporary nature of marriage will reveal the exact change (Kanu, 2012). Hence, a healthy family is imperative for a healthy society and the church at large (Appathurai, 2012). Christian, Traditional and Islamic religions generally have certain ways of conducting marriages and how such marriages are expected to be guided by certain rules and regulations of such faiths. It is therefore true that people in all cultures and in all ages have considered marriage as a natural gift to humanity. It can therefore be said with certainty that the institution of marriage is one that is natural and common to all human kind. (Kanu, and Obiefuna 2014).
Marriage is a socially sanctioned union typically between one man and one woman usually called husband and wife. Marriage is a uniquely comprehensive union of hearts and minds, but also distinctively a bodily union made possible by sexual complementarities. It is more than physical attraction and biological union; it involves total commitment, self-donation to one another and taking responsibilities that lead to mutual well-being and marital stability. Infidelity among married couples in Christian churches has been responsible for most cases of marital separation and divorce. This study investigated the Rapid Increase of infidelity in marriage, causes, effects and remedies: a case study of few selected churches in Ibadan North Local Government Area Oyo State of Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the Study
Marriage also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally recognized union of two people as partners in a personal relationship which historically and in some jurisdiction specifically involve a man and a woman. This most solemn, sacred and serious union into which people enter establishes rights and obligations between them as well as between them and their children, and between them and their in-law. It is sacred because it is established by God Himself. Serious because it binds the man and woman together in a relationship so close and intimate that their entire future will be profoundly influenced by it. The sacredness and sanctity of marriage is expressed in the marriage vow itself, “To be my lawfully wedded wife and vow to be loyal to you in every way to comfort you to cherish you, from this day forward, for better for worse, for richness for poorer, in sickness and health and always to love you till death do us part according to God’s holy ordinance to this I pledge myself.” Marriage connotes a life time of dedication and surrendering to each other. A life of sharing the pains, frustrations, disappointments, victory, joy and happiness of each other. It is a life total dependence on each other.
Getting married is a life time experience that is often cherished and looked forward to with great enthusiasm, hope and expectations of eventual fruitful married life. Okoiye, Ukah and Nwoga (2016) asserted that when couples get married, they project establishing a happy and joyous home devoid of rancour, acrimony, violence, conflict or instability. However, the institution of marriage has been subjected to numerous challenges in recent times considering the fact that the challenges of the twenty first century contemporary societal expectations have made some marriages to experience distress, frustrations and uncompromising experiences that have had negative implications on them and caused marital instability. Entry into marriage is always an experience but it is often discovered that the journey through the marriage life is full of intricacies with unpleasant experiences one cannot deny.
In Nigeria, research studies have being conducted on family and marital problems. In view of these, there have been various research interests in the study of marriage problem so much that is no doubt that the country is beset with a rising incidence of separation and divorce cases after marriage (Audu, 2016). Problem of various descriptions for example locates infidelity in marriage as a major influence of separation and divorce.
Ayannuga and Adenuji (2017) noted that marital stability is the key factor in Nigerian marriages and it involves a lot of effort for its sustenance. Marital stability here is not only a value term but also a relative term which implies firmness and strength to endure under hard as well as easy circumstances. There is a strong alignment between healthy marriages and mental health. Successful marriage and married life will be able to meet many of mental and physical needs in a safe environment and significantly influence on individuals’ mental health. Harley (1996) also noted that it is a wonder that after couples have made solemn and sacred contracts and have promised before accredited witnesses to live together for better and for worse till death part them, the same couples became the architects of conflict and marital instability especially in present day Nigeria.
The marriage institution is in fact a reflection of the decadence and general disorder that is evident in the Nigerian society. The norms and values which were once cherished in the olden days have been washed away as the society moves towards holistic, materialistic and cosmopolitan tendencies. Infidelity among couples is one of the most wrenching experiences a couple can endure. It can destroy families, crush spirits. It also can cause pain to the cheater. Hence, there is no other information about the origin of infidelity apart from the ones written in the Bible; therefore, the Bible remains the basis of information about the origin of infidelity among married couples. The Bible states that, marital infidelity is the unlawful relationship between a married person and another person of the opposite sex (Book of John 8:3). This is when a person is having an extramarital engagement with another person. Harley (1996) posited that marital infidelity as an affair is when a married individual has intercourse with a person to whom they are not married, that is to say that, it is an affair of two people who are married to different people of the opposite sex.
Nigeria is a religious nation and vast majority of Nigerians, take issues of religion and religious practice as very important aspect of their lives. Also, marriage and religion influence various dimensions of life, including physical health and longevity of life, mental health and happiness, economic well-being and raising of children yet infidelity amongst couples is a major threat to this belief system and poses a risk to marital happiness.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Infidelity, being a worldwide phenomenon, has caused tremendous effects on the society and has impacted differently to different couples, socially, economically, psychologically, and culturally. It is one of the most damaging behaviors for the survival of a relationship. It creates a violation of trust and breaks the commitment partners made to each other; it weakens marital relationships and creates tension (Cohen 2015, Mapfumo 2016).
Marital infidelity in churches has been associated with varied emotional responses and behaviours such as increased anxiety and depression, suicidal ideation, along threats of divorce and physical aggression (Taghi, Ismail, & Jaafar, 2019). The act destroys relationships and research shows that it is the single most reason for divorce (Cohen, 2015), and it is due to the inability of spouses to observe sexual exclusivity of each other. Although there is a substantial body of literature on the prevalence and correlates of infidelity, there is need to pay attention to the factors contributing to infidelity. Therefore, this study sought to find out Infidelity of Pastors: An examination of it’s causes and it’s effect on the Nigerian Church.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is aim at assessing school health program in public secondary schools in Egor Local Government. The specific objectives of the study are:
- To assess the health services provided by the schools
- To assess the teaching of school health education/instruction
- To assess the resources available in providing school health services and school health instruction
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the health services provided by the schools?
- How is health education being taught in the schools?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
School cannot achieve its primary objective of learning if students and staff are not healthy, school health programme is the most effective means to prevent or reduce risky behaviours and prevent health problems among students and school workers (American School Health Association, 2006). This could be achieved through simple and flexible system that will provide regular collected data that are available for use at the local, regional and national levels.
This study will provide the schools with the knowledge of school health program and its importance. It will guide policy and practice and can serve as a basis for further research. It will also provide available data that can be used at the local, regional and national levels.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is delimited to the assessment of school health program in Secondary Schools in Egorlocal government. These programmes are:
(1) School health education
(2) School health services
(3) Healthy school environment
(4) Physical education
(5) Nutrition services
(6) Health promotion for school staff
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
School: refers to an institution for educating learners
Health: refers to the ability to perform daily activities
Program: refers to a planned activity
Service: refers to function provided by somebody
School community: refers to all the people living/working within the school premises
School Health Day: refers to a day set aside annually to create awareness on health and health related issues in the schools.