STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM IN NKANU WEST LOCAL NKANU WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The main purpose of this research was to examine the students’ perception of the impact of educational technology in the classroom in Nkanu West Local Nkanu West Local Government Area. Four research questions and hypotheses guided the study. Population comprised the selected secondary schools students in Nkanu West Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State from which 100 respondents were randomly selected as sample from 5 secondary schools. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Collection of data was done with the help of a trained research assistant. Retrieved questionnaire forms were checked. The badly filled and the mutilated ones were discarded while the good ones were coded and simple percentage statistic and non-parametric statistic of chi – square was used for data analysis. It was accepted students perception of the impact of educational technology significantly affect the teaching of Health Education in secondary schools Nkanu West Local Government Area.
STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM
1.1 Background to the study
Perception deals with the way people interpret sensations, using knowledge and understanding of the world, so that they become meaningful experiences. The most common sources of evaluation data have been students, peers and teachers themselves. Mayya and Roff, (2014) asserted that; students’ perceptions of the educational milieu can be a basis for implementing modifications and thus optimize the educational environment. It influences how, why and what student learn. It also makes possible to assess and modify the educational environment. However, teaching is a goal-directed exercise, once objectives are set; the means to ascertain how well they have been attained must also be established.
Educational technology is not a new phenomenon. Its history can be as old as the history of education itself. However, educational technology in its technical sense has entered into education professionals’ focus for less than a century. During this period, different accounts have been provided for the concept of educational technology. Some people regard educational technology as utilizing a variety of tools such as projectors and films. Others consider this field as application of any materials from the use of a piece of chalk or any simple teacher-made instruments to sophisticated tools, all for the purpose of education. Some other people identify the use of various teaching methods and syllabus design with educational technology. And finally, a group of people consider educational technology as a miracle able to solve educational problems caused by small spaces, great numbers of students, and teachers’ inefficiency Historically, educational practitioners have always attempted to employ technology and teaching methods known by teachers and students at that time to meet their educational needs.
The term “educational technology” in schools should be understood as a project encompassing the educational process, involving not only the teacher or the structural divisions of the education system but also the students and how they apply technology to improve their learning process (Pachler, Cook & Bachmair, 2010). Educational technologies include information technologies, research technologies for scientific and educational information; technologies for the computer processing of educational information; technologies for organizing the professional training of students; and technologies for the execution and defense of the graduation project or academic works (Ignatyeva, 2015).
The most used tools in this new educational era are multimedia technology, online learning or e-learning, mobile learning or m-learning, blogs, and social networks (Fojtik, 2014). On the one hand, multimedia technology allows the integration of text, numbers, graphics, still or moving images, presentations, a high level of interactivity and, besides, the possibilities of navigating through different documents, which gives students the convenience of understanding words and teaching objects (Chen et al., 2012). It has been shown that multimedia technology has four advantages: 1) it improves information reception and the quality of teaching; 2) it deepens students’ memory and their understanding of knowledge through vivid images, videos and refined language, 3) the application of multimedia technology can unite the process of recognition and the affective process; and 4) it can stimulate and motivate study among groups of students and improve the efficiency and the quality of teaching (Ausin, Abella, Delgado & Hortiguela, 2016).
Furthermore, the intensive use of the Internet and the rise of smart mobile devices have allowed the development of new forms of education, such as online education (e-learning or m-learning), which sometimes complements other modalities, such as classroom sessions, and gives rise to a mixed modality (Avello et al., 2016). E-learning is the teaching-learning process carried out through the Internet, characterized by a physical separation between teachers and students and through which a continuous didactic interaction takes place. In addition, the students become the center of training, having to self-manage their learning with the help of tutors and peers (Avello et al., 2016).
Online learning or e-learning is increasingly better evaluated and more widely used in the field of education (Shi, 2016). Although many people show resistance to change and relate it to poor-quality education, studies have shown that it is a mistake to assume that e-learning is of lower quality than face-to-face education (Marín, F., Inciarte, Hérnandez, & Pitre, 2017). In many developing countries, e-learning is considered a solution to the growing demand for higher education (Ngampornchai & Adams, 2016); it has already greatly affected the method of learning, and many schools are using it as a pedagogy.
Educationists are of the opinion that the educational problems relating to quantity and quality could be tackled by the proper utilization of instructional technology which is composed of modern educational technology materials. Educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the teaching learning process. Educational technology makes instruction more effective, understandable and meaningful. All types of resources are used to make the learning easy. Traditional teacher-centered approach in the classroom has been shifted from teaching to learning. It is called student centered or resource-based approach, the student being the resource. Education technology requires the disciplined implementation of expertise to enhance research, teaching and/or efficiency (Spector, 2015)
Globalization and technological change processes that have accelerated in tandem over the past fifteen years have created a new global economy “powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As the half-life of information continues to shrink and access to information continues to grow exponentially, schools cannot remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from teacher to student over a fixed period of time.
Rather, schools must promote “learning to learn,” i.e. the acquisition of knowledge and skills that make possible continuous learning over the lifetime. “The illiterate of the 21st century,” according to futurist Alvin Toffler (2011), “will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” Concerns over educational relevance and quality coexist with the imperative of expanding educational opportunities to those made most vulnerable by globalization developing countries in general; low-income groups, girls and women, and low-skilled workers in particular. Global changes also put pressure on all groups to constantly acquire and apply new skills. The International Labour Organization defines the requirements for education and training in the new global economy simply as “Basic Education for All”, Core Work Skills for All” and “Lifelong Learning for All”.
The importance of inquiry in the science process cannot be overemphasized; the National Research Council (NRC, 2000) solve problems using practical and created the standards around a central theme ‘science standards for all students’. This theme emphasizes the importance of inquiring in the science process, allowing students to describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanation test those explanations against current scientific knowledge and communicate their ideas to others. In teaching science with an inquiry emphasis, the assumptions of the diverse populace are considered and critical and logical thinking skills are fostered.
According to the National Science Education Standard (NSES, 2000) inquiry-based classrooms should include: A multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations and predictions; and communicating the results. Inquiry allows students to learn and experience health education firsthand, by taking on the roles of scientists.
The students use the inquiry process to develop explanations from their observations (evidence) by has learned. They learn discrete health education concepts and skills and how to solve problems using practical approaches. Incorporating inquiry into health education classrooms empowers students. They play an active role in their learning rather than the passive role commonly seen in traditional classrooms. Teachers can foster better experiences with inquiry in various ways and ultimately positively affect students’ health education process skills and understanding of health education, whether the inquiry activity is structured, guided, or open.
According, Nigeria secondary school science project (2015) argue that age of development for one to be a function citizen, a full and satisfactory knowledge of scientific skills and attitudes is very necessary. This will assist him/her in inquiry, critical thinking to solve problems on his/her own and become independent in his/her original work. Likewise a Chinese proverb, is literally interpreted thus: What I hear I forget, What I see I observe, What I do I know and remember. The above statements go for the improvement of an educational technology to any science subject because it is there that scientific knowledge and learning by doing are acquired. Therefore this research examines students’ perception of the impact of educational technology in teaching of health education in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Educational technology is a systemic, structured method of implementing modern technology to enhance educational output. It’s a comprehensive method of conceptualizing instructional procedure implementation and assessment, Reading, Coaching, and helping implement new teaching methods. It requires teaching resources, strategies and work-related organization, the actions of all members in the educational phase.
However, one key factor responsible for students poor performance is not that they were not properly taught the concept but it has to do with not moving the abstract to the concrete concepts taught. Could it be that the integration of educational technology into the instruction process of health education will enhances effective teaching and learning of the subject? Thus, it is against this background that the study sought to examine students’ perception of the impact of educational technology in the classroom in Nkanu West Local Nkanu West Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the students perception of the impact of educational technology in the classroom in Nkanu West Local Nkanu West Local Government Area.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- determine the students’ perception towards the use of educational technology in the classroom.
- determine the level of interest of students taught through Educational technology.
iii. Evaluate the achievements of the students taught through Educational Technology.
iv examine the difference between male and female students’ perception towards the use of educational technology in the classroom.
STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions guided the study:
- Is there any relationship in the perception of students’ towards the use of educational technology and the teaching and learning in the classroom?
- To what extent does educational technology impact on student’s interest in teaching/learning?
- Is there any difference between male and female students’ perception towards the use of educational technology in the teaching of health education?
- How does the presence of educational technology in teaching impact on the academic achievements of the students ?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference between male and female students’ perception towards the use of educational technology in the teaching of health education.
- There is no significant relationship between the presence of educational technology in teaching and the academic achievements of the students .
1.6 Delimitation and Scope of the study
This research work is delimited to all the Health education teachers and students in all the secondary schools in the study area.
1.7 Significance of the study
The study will be of importance in the following ways:-
- The study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.
- The study will help the government personnel such as curriculum planner and education policy maker to encourage the uses and provision of educational technology that relate to teaching of health education and other subjects in the secondary schools.
- The study when at completion will go a long way to change the behavior of the students towards the perception and uses educational technology in the classroom.
- To help the students of health education in learning and acquiring knowledge or skills in health education to concretize the abstract ideas
- The study will help the teachers in teaching the aforesaid subject since they could be more aware of the role of educational technology in making the teaching process more effective and efficient.
- To educational planners and designers, this study will help them to know the areas in which emphasis should be laid in their future planning to yield better result.
- To the teachers and school administrators the study will help them have the proper insight and knowledge on how integration of educational technology will help in effective teaching and learning of health education and other secondary school subjects.
- Also, the study will help the school administrator and government to be knowledgeable about the whole picture of the advantage of educational technology hence, it would serves as a basis in formulating policies for better quality of teaching health education.
1.8 Definition of terms
Perception: These deals with the way people interpret sensations, using knowledge and understanding f the world, so that they become meaningful experiences.
Educational Technology: Is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the teaching learning process.
Student: Is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
Teaching: Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given.