Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils

Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils
Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils

ABSTRACT: The study investigated Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils. The population for the study was 2314 primary 4 pupils. The sample size was 200 random 4 pupils selected using simple random sampling technique. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Questionnaire entitled “Questionnaire on Family Variables (QFV)” and past result of pupils in mathematics were the instruments for data collection. Findings showed that there is a significant difference in academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils whose parents are formally educated and those whose parents are formally uneducated also there is a significant difference in academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils whose parents income is high and those whose parents income is not high in primary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils

Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents should attend adult educational level; also government should provide employment opportunities for parents to increase their socio-economic status. It was concluded that parents’ education and socio-economic status affect the academic performance of pupils in mathematics in primary schools.



1.1     Background of the study

The family is the child’s first place of contract with the world. The child is a result acquires initial education and socialization from parent and other significant persons in the family. Agulana (2009) pointed out that the moral, psychological and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Ekpo (2004) was of the view that the home is where every child is born into and makes first interactions. These interactions can contribute in shaping the feelings, emotions and attitudes of the child permanently. The destiny of mankind depends on the child and the welfare of the child is closely linked to the family in terms of the innate tendencies drawn from the genetic transcription and the family environment. Family variables in this context such as parents educational attainment; socio-economic status of parents, level of social class placement are those factors that varies from one family to another. Other includes; occupation of parents and family type such as broken home, single parenting amongst others.

According to Fraza (2011) the psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken home, divorce and parental derivation. Such abnormal effect  on academic performance of the child. Schultz (2006) noted that of adolescents from unstable home from socio-economic status compared with those from rich and stable homes, it would be seen that those from poor background have more social, academic and emotional problem. The environment in which the child finds his or herself can either make the child generation after generations geniuses die without being noticed as a result of their circumstances of birth. Scales and Roehkepartein (2003) are of the opinions that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic performance.

Levin (2011) also states that parents are probably the actions with the clearest undimensional interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show that mental instability which is one of the effects of family variables brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration among children of nursery school age. Obviously, these manifestation acts negatively on a child’s academic performance in school.

Furthermore, Johnson (2013) posited that children of unmarried parents, separated families, poor socio-economic status, low educational attainment amongst others, often fail and are at risk emotionally and academically. However, this may not be completely applicable in all instances of poor family variables background or structure as children from these backgrounds may work hard through the influence of the school environment and become successful academically. Moreover, Ayodele (2006) stated that the environment which a child finds his /her learning ability and ultimately his/her academic performance in school. This therefore forms the background that this study was conducted to investigate family variables and academic performance in Mathematics among Primary school pupils.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Mathematics is a subject taught children from nursery school to universities in Nigeria. Nursery education as contained in the National Policy on Education (NPE) is the education given in institutions for children aged 3-5 years. (FRN, 2013) since the result of the educational system is built upon the nursery education, it is the foundation and hence the key to success or failure of the child academically. However, mathematics learning foundation lay in the nursery school. Mathematics as a science of logical reasoning applied to the operation on numbers. It is a core subject in the school curriculum because its knowledge is indispensable to the educated man. The aim of mathematics teaching is to prepare the child to learn and understand the more specialized techniques provided later in life. As it is regarded as a service subject to science, technology, commerce, geography, economics, politics and events arts.

Family Variables and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary Pupils

Inpsite of much emphasis, the study of mathematics has not been encouraging in Nigeria as some pupils’ dropout on the way (Haggai, 2003). The attributed this observation to factors related to parents such as poverty, early marriage, persistent academic under achievement, family responsibilities and sickness in the family. Similarly in nursery schools in the study area, pupils have been performing so poor academically in most of their school subjects like mathematics.

This poor performance among pupils has caused serious concern among teachers, parents, educational planner and the society at large. On the foregoing, Wilson (2015) asserted that the poor academic performance could be attributed to the fact that pupils are from different family background. It was therefore necessary to examine the relationship between family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupil.

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