Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools

Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools
Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools

ABSTRACT: The study investigated Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools. The population for the study was 2336 primary 4 pupils. The sample size was 200 primary four (Pri. 4) pupils selected using simple random sampling technique. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Questionnaire entitled “Questionnaire on Home Variables (QHV)” and past result of pupils in Social Studies were the instruments for data collection. Findings showed that there is a significant difference in academic performance in social studies among pupils whose parents are formally educated and those whose parents are not formally educated; also that there is a significant difference in academic performance in social studies among pupils whose parents income is high and those whose parent is not high in primary schools in the study area.

Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools

Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents should attend adult educational level; also government should provide employment opportunities for parents to increase their socio-economic status. It was concluded that parents’ education and socio-economic status affect the academic performance of pupils in social studies in primary schools.



1.1     Background to the Study

The home is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result acquires initial education and socialization from present and other significant persons in the home. The home is where every child is born into and makes first interactions. These interactions can contribute of the child permanently. The destiny of mankind depends on the child and the welfare of the child is closely linked to the home in terms of the innate tendencies drawn from the genetic transcription and the home environment. 

Home variables in this context such as parent’s educational attained, socio-economic status of parents, level of social class placement are those factors that vary from one home to another. Other include; occupation of parents and home type such as broken home, single parenting etc. the psychological  home conditional arises mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken home, divorce and parental deviation and such abnormal effect may affect the academic performance of the  child.

If children from homes with unstable and low socio-economic status background are compared with those from rich and stable background, it would be observed that those from rich and stable background perform academically better than those from poor and unstable background who may be experiencing social, emotional and psychological problems.

The environment in which the child finds his or herself can either make the child generation after generation geniuses die without being noticed as a result of their circumstances of birth. Parents are probably the actions with the dearest undimensional interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show that mental instability which is one of the effects of home variables brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration among children of nursery schools age.

Obviously, these manifestation acts in negatively on a child’s academic performance in school. Children of unmarried parents, separated families, poor socio-economic status, low educational attainment amongst others, often fail and are at risk emotionally and academically. However, this may not be completely applicable in all instances of poor home background or structure as children from this background may work hard through the influence of the school environment and become successful academically.

Moreover, the environment which a child finds his or herself at the early stage of development influences the learning ability of the child and ultimately, this therefore from the background that this study was conducted.

Home Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Social Study is a subject taught children from nursery school to universities in Nigeria. Nursery education as contained in the National Policy on Education (NPE) is the education given in institutions for children aged 3-5years (FRN, 2013).

Since the result of the educational system is built upon the nursery education, it is the foundation and hence the key to success of failure of the child academically. However, social study is a subject which deals with the study of man and its nature in relationship with his environment. It is core subject in the primary school curriculum because its knowledge is indispensable to the educated man about his environment. The aim of social studies teaching is to prepare the child to learn and understand the more specialized techniques provided later in life.

Inspite of much emphasis laid on this subject, the study of social studies has not been encouraging in Nigeria as some pupils’ dropout on the way. This is attributed this observation to factors related to parents, such as poverty, early marriage, persistent academic under achievement, home responsibilities and sickness in the home, similarly in nursery schools in Abak Local Government Area, pupils have been performing so poorly, academically in most of their school subject like social studies. This poor performance among pupils has caused serious concern among teachers, parents, educational planner and the society at large. The poor academic performance could be attributed to the fact that pupils are from different home background. It was therefore necessary to examine the relationship between home variable and academic performance in social studies.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.