ABSTRACT: The study investigated the Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools. A population of this study was made up of Two Thousand One Hundred and Seventy (2,170) Senior Secondary Students (SS2) from the eight (8) public secondary schools in the study area. The study sample size was two hundred (200) students selected from five (5) public secondary schools in the study area. To realize the objectives of the two null hypotheses were formulated in line with the research questions. Economics Achievement Test (EAT) was instrument for data collected; the instrument was validated by the supervisor.
Two hundred senior secondary school students who offer Economics and duly registered for 2017/2018 academic session was the sample size for the study. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between multi-media utilization and academic performance of students in Economics in Secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area. It was recommended that teachers should inculcate the habit of using appropriate multi-media and other instrument materials.
1.1 Background to the Study
The establishment of a school system in any society is generally brought about by the need to equip the learners intellectually to enable them perform necessary functions within their society. A school system therefore exists to aid the survival, growth and development of the individual as well as the society. The influence of instructional materials utilization in promoting students’ academic performance through teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable.
The teaching of Economics needs to be handled properly in Nigeria secondary schools, because in Nigeria society, the study of Economics is very important as it teaches us how to manage our limited resources judiciously (Siddiqui, 2007). Moreso, the knowledge one acquires in Economics enable one to be useful to oneself, to the family and the society at large.
Besides, individuals and government take a number of economic policies which bring about rapid improvement in our social and economic lives. These could be seen in the areas of distribution of national income, the prices of key commodities, the level of employment, the availability and quality of rural health, education and other amenities. Clark (2006) confirmed that the understanding of economics is necessary for citizenship the prime concern of teaching economics has to be the provision of basic economic knowledge that is necessary for responsible citizenship.
To teach can be describe as to enable or cause somebody to do something by instructing and training him. Teaching takes place when a specific lesson is given to the learners at school or elsewhere on a relevant course or when a teacher explains, shows and states something by way of instruction to learners.
Educational media generally refers to the technological tools such as computer programme, films, video-editing programs, word-processing equipment and calculating instruments used for teaching to enhance learning outcomes in students or learners (Ask.com, 2013), Abia (2000) noted that instructional materials are those things which are manipulated, seen, heard, read or talked about, plus instrument which facilitate such activities. In view of this background, this study examined availability and utilization of instructional materials and academic performance of students in economics in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
World Bank (2013) indicated that an instructional material in schools is inadequate in terms of the use of power point, slides, video-tapes, diagrams, printed materials, and computer software.
However, the poor academic performance of secondary school economics students in Ini Local Government Area has been attributed to many factors over the years among which is teaching methods. Also the availability and utilization process of instructional materials which aids teaching and learning is not encouraging. This leads to the poor academic performance of students in economics.
Most teachers use materials during teaching while others do not (Igwe, 2015). Even those who use them have flaws in this process. This study therefore investigates to see whether the availability and utilization of instructional materials can actually produce the desired influence in the teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.