Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools
Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The population for the study was all senior secondary one to three students of Economics in all the public secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area. The sample size selected for the study was 200 Economics students selected from SS1 – SS3 students in two secondary schools using stratified random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection in the study was Economics Achievement Test (EAT). The method of data analysis in this study was independent t-test.

Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

The findings of the study revealed that: there is a significant difference in academic performance between students in small class size and those in large class size in Economics; and that there is a significant difference in academic performance between students in class with adequate classroom seats and desks and those without adequate classroom seats and desks in Economics. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the government at all levels should try as much as possible to provide schools with the necessary learning materials so as to help students in their academic performance in Economics.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Background to the Study

Classroom is a four walled enclosed in the school system with sits and desk facing a chalkboard and the teacher position as fixed as that of any other member in the classroom. Ekanem (2010) pointed out that in educational setting or in educational institution, classroom is the principal thing of the institution and it should be given special attention alongside with his variables. A true picture of an ideal or good classroom should be spacious, as well as electrified with sockets for recording sufficient seats and tables for the teachers and the students, a standard chalkboard, wash-hand basin with clean water, chalk, ruler and duster. All these mention above falls under the examples of variables in the classroom.

The classroom remains undoubtedly the common yardstick as well as a determining factor or a pivotal measure through which the achievement of the aim of education is ascertained. This is because learning cannot take place in a rowdy atmosphere and therefore calls for a conducive and controlled environment which is the classroom. The classroom according to Ekanem (2010) is the power room in which the objectives of education are dissected and coupled through different process of teaching and learning.

The classroom in which the child stays to receive learning has consequence on the general pattern of his growth and development (Akaeze, 2014). According to Vincent, (2006) there is a high correlation between the classroom and the number of students as well as the level of participation of students in class activities. The classrooms have several variables such as class size, facilities, environment and many other variables. According to Umoren and Akpan (2009) education aims at developing the individual and this can be achieve as the individuals plays his part in preserving, transmitting and transforming the culture, his potentials as an individuals should be evident to himself and the society and this can mainly happen in the classroom as the child interact with his peers in the class during the teaching/learning process.

However, according to a study conducted by Libarnary (2010) on classroom variables and teaching effectiveness in Kenyam schools, the author posited that for effective teaching to occur, the class size, class facilities and the class environment must be conducive and favourable to the teachers and the students that is why the author went on to say that school heads and teachers need to create a favourable environment in order to make classroom more child friendly. This environment begins with a well- designed and well- eventuated classroom with functional spaces, adequate facilities and equipment as well as adequate instructional materials.

Ntuk (2014) posits that many counties, a stimulating classroom is prepared by a teacher with the help of the leaner and the goal is to create stimulating classroom where children are inspired to learn and teacher have a range of skills and tool to successfully engage them in the process.

Ntuk (2014) in another related book asserted that the teacher roles in the classroom from the sociological view point embraces increased sensitivity to the larger cultural environment in which classroom is embedded. No classroom can exist in isolation of the broader and pervasive cultural influence with the attendant conflict and powerful forces which threaten to swamp the classrooms contrary to the sociology view, the socio-psychologists view the classroom as a political system, a microcosm of a country in which the various system of government are stimulated. This then formed the background to which the present study was conducted to investigate class variable and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in the study area.

Class Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

1.2       Statement of the Problem of Study   

Over the years, majority of students that sat for the West Africa Certificate Examination (WACE) have been recording mass failure in the subject. Specifically, in 2016, the percentage of students who passed their SSCE with credit in Economics was below 50% (Johnny, 2017).

The poor result of students in Economics have been attributed to the students’ inability to understand most of the concepts of the subjects, poor perception of discipline among the stakeholders, unavailability as well as poor usage of class facilities. This has become a source of working tools for successive government and major stakeholder’s in the education in the Local Government Area. This therefore motivated the researcher to ask could class variables also influence the students’ learning in secondary schools? And therefore provide the basis for the researcher to investigate class variables as it influence the academic performance of students in Economics in Secondary Schools.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education. Call/Whatsapp for complete material: 07068634102