ABSTRACT: The study examined the influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools. In order to attain the aims of the topic, two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature of work done by other authors was reviewed to in order to employ their opinion on this topic. The researcher adopted a survey research design in carrying out the study. Population of the study consisted of all Biology teachers in all the 6 secondary schools in the study area. The study sampled size was 22 Biology teachers drawn from all the secondary school in the study area. The instruments used for data collection was the researcher made questionnaire titled Motivational Strategies and Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (MSTEQ). To ascertain the level of available motivational strategies, Chi-square statistical tool was used in the analysis and the hypotheses.
THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background to the study
Education is adopted as an instrument for effective national development and growth so as to produce citizens that are dynamic both in thought and deeds, self-sufficient, effective, and united and show civil responsibility. The increasing awareness of the importance of education to the upliftment of the individual and societal standards has awakened in people and nations a conscious effort at devoting their meager resources to acquiring qualitative education. Education has been identified as the mainstay of societal development through the production of human resources to occupy the various institutions that makes up the society.
As an institution, it provides platform for transmitting the required skills, knowledge and norms to citizens and therefore ensure societal continuity. Education in a broad sense is a process by which an individual acquires many physical and social capabilities demanded of him by the society in which he is born to function. In an ideal sense, it is an agent of change, the single most significant complex of socio control tools for national development is found in the educational system be it formal or informal.
Motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfillment. While teacher motivation is fundamental to the teaching and learning process, several teachers are not highly motivated. This observation should be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution. Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts, and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Sternberg (2014), high levels of job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance.
According to Gorham and Millete, (2017) teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their students motivation levels as low. Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation‘s future. Michaelowa (2012) in her study on analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context, found that large class size, double-shifting, rural location, high educational attainment and active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher motivation in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers had no statistically significant impact on teacher motivation. Ikenyiri, and Ihua-Maduenyi (2011) believe that organizations should implement remuneration systems that encompass both financial and non-financial aspects as this would ensure the satisfaction of different employees’ needs, thus, increasing levels of employee commitment and performance. Non-financial remuneration systems include factors such as recognition, promotion, increased responsibilities, and personal growth. These endeavours are aimed at motivating employees through satisfaction of their esteemed needs and accomplishing organizational goals as the success of the organization is linked to human capital.
Human motivation according to Rosenberg (2010) is a complex concept in terms of its structure, classification and hierarchical organization of motives. Rosenberg (2013s) believes that it is difficult to define motivation precisely because of its dynamic nature. Motivation is viewed as dynamic because what motivates one person might not motivate the other, and also what motivates one person today may not motivate him/her at all or to the same degree the next day.
Literature shows that there is much contestation on what really constitutes motivation (Palmer, 2014; Harter, 2010). While previous research tended to characterize motivation as being biologically driven in order to satisfy personal physiological needs (e.g., Maslow’s conception), recent studies have shown that while biological needs play a role in motivation, much of what drives motivation to do or not do something comes from the need to feel effective and demonstrate mastery of the environment (Harter, 1981; 1882; Deci & Ryan, 2015; Weist et al, 2018; White, 2012). In his work on drivers of motivation, White (2012) challenged the traditional theories of motivation that posited that the basis of behavior is grounded on the desire to satisfy biological needs, by arguing that it is in fact curiosity and desire to explore that underly motivation to do something.
However, despite problems with a precise definition of motivation, a number of scholars have attempted to define motivation. According to Louw and Edwards (2017), motivation is something that initiates, sustains and directs thinking and behaviour. To Farrant (2011), motivation is that which causes us to act. Dennis (2013) defined motivation as the force which spurs us on to satisfy some need which can be internal or external. Dworetzky (2018) said motivation is a word which comes from the Latin word motivum which refers to the reason something has moved.
To Dworetzky, therefore, motivation refers to any state or condition that moves an organism to act. Mwamwenda (2016) expands the concept of motivation when he defines motivation as an energizer or a driving force, or an urge that causes an individual to want to engage in certain behaviour. Hayes (2014) states that motivation is a state of arousal while Borich and Tombari (2010) define motivation as any activity-inducing drive. Dembo (2014) referred to motivation as the desire to achieve a particular goal. All the above definitions therefore imply that motivation is therefore a force that drives a person to act or behave in a particular way.
Psychologists, including Skemp (2011), believe that motivation is mostly and purely psychological in nature and because of this, it can sustain performance. Skemp (2017) further stated that motivation can sustain the learning of mathematics if viewed in the context of a cycle which he called the motivational cycle. Using the above pictorial representation of the motivation cycle, Skemp (2017) draws our attention to the fact that effective motivation first and foremost, derives its roots from a felt need. Such a need could be internally or externally generated.
A motivation -sensitive teacher would then create conditions that help learners to see the satisfaction of his/her felt need not only as a possibility but as a reality. If these conditions are established making the learner enthusiastic or more interested in his/her learning in order to ensure the satisfaction of his/her felt need, the enthusiasm or interest would constitute the drive.
The drive would be the energizing force to enable the learner to work even harder to satisfy his/her need or goal. The goal is referred to by Skemp (2009) as the terminal point of behaviour, that is, the end result of all the effort the learner would have been putting into his/her learning as a result of a felt need. Once this need or goal is achieved the fourth and last stage of the motivational cycle, that is,the satiation stage, is reached. At this stage, there is a cessation of the drive activity due to the satisfaction the learner experiences as a result of the achievement of a set goal. The above is also extended by Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, (2013) who posited that motivation involves the processes that energize, direct and sustain behaviour. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate the influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.2 Statement of the Problem
School teachers in Nigeria have complained of government inability to satisfy their needs shelter, home, food etc. Among workers in the civil service, the teachers are the least motivated incentives, allowances transportation etc. Their salaries are not paid when due and their promotion is delayed. The salary is not paid as at when the promotion took place. The classroom where they carry out their job is overcrowded and in some cases, the children sit on the floor to learn. This makes it difficult for the teacher to manage his class effectively.
Besides, government officials from ministry of education, parents, and members of the community where they teach do not have respect for them. To enhance their economy and improve their living standards most of them engage in other business ventures during the school period. The time and energy devoted to the business affect commitment to duty as a teacher and consequently hinders the performance of the students. Moreover, whenever teachers are not adequately taken care of especially with regards to regular and prompt payment of their salaries and other entitlements, their attitude to work automatically changes. They refuse to obey laid down rules for their work. They could come to work. Instead of teaching, many of them resort to discussing their personal problems in their staff rooms and offices. This study is therefore sought to examine motivational strategies and effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools.