1.1 Background to the Study
Every individual grows towards becoming functioning members of the society. In the process of growth he gains empowerment through school learning. Stakeholders in education industry such as government, parent, missionaries, and proprietors of schools had invested huge sum of money and materials to ensure high performance of student under their care (Bola, 2013).
There has always been diversity in the performance of student in secondary schools. While some student perform very well, others do the opposite and some cases, student are withdrawn from school for low performance. Various reasons have been attributed to this failure. Among them include the different levels of intelligence, some socio-economic factors, the school environment, students’ attitudes, and student deviant behaviors. Deviant behavior simply means behaviour that students do that goes against the standard of the society, regardless whether the action is legal or illegal. Michael, (2014) defines deviant behavior as that type of behavior that is contrary to norms and the rules of the society. Such behavior or activities includes, crime, drunkenness, indiscipline, drug abuse, examination dishonesty, truancy and many others. It is reveal that students fails massively internal and externally administered examination. Stakeholders in the education industries such as parent, school authorities, teachers, officials of the ministry of education and the student themselves are restive and concerned at the high casualty rate of students in public examination. Nigeria society today is developing; therefore, it should stimulate the spirit of patriotism and lay the solid foundation for national and international understanding and corporation in students. Due to this fact, the education of the youth is very important in other to ensure the citizens to the social and economic development of the country as well as raising the standard of living generally.
The Influence Of Behavioural Counseling On Deviant Behaviors Of Secondary School Students
According to Ehigie (2018), the family as agent of socialization could have significant impact on the child. This is evident from the fact that it is the first place where the child learns about leadership and what it takes, also basic skills and behavior pattern taught by parents in the home. The school as an organization should be able to deliver civilitarian services which geared towards the betterment of the society, such as the ability to teach morals, honesty, regularity, loyalty and dedication. This implies that the school should be able to provide disciplined students who will later become good citizens who are free from any deviant act or behaviour of any kind.
Deviant behaviour varies from one society to another. It is obvious that what might be seen normal behaviour in another community might be seen abnormal in another. For example, in the Northern parts of the state covering of body is a very big culture and it is highly respected as their tradition demand but, in the Southern region it is not allowed while because it is against the ethics of our cultures. But in the north it is their style of dressing and cannot be violated, if one does it has become a deviant behaviour and that person will be sanctioned or killed as their culture permits in the north. However, deviant behaviour should be stamped out to allow development and growth. Opong (2008) states that deviant behaviour is a disease that is against transparency, justice and fair play. Education is the hallmark of progress for effecting change and growth. Pertinently, it is on the basis of this, that government at all levels shows concern in making education a top most priority to ensure every person’s achieve it and also come up with effective policies that will enhance educational growth of the citizenship (Angel, 2016).
The functions of education in metamorphosing the citizens cannot be overemphasized, Agi (2015) posited that education is the art of loading a person from the dark are of ignoramus into the limelight of knowledge and understanding. This means or implies that an educated person can help in transforming the society for positive growth and development. Eremus (2015) posited that rules and regulations are not obeyed in our schools as there are much cases of examination malpractice, truancy, bullying, extortion, sexual offences, dishonesty, drug offences, dressing offences and porous behaviours etc. He said this ill attitude signifies deviation from standard functionality of student’s behaviour. It is on this basis that Angel posited that school has become a place of committing different types of atrocities and also beg the government, parents and school administrators to wake up and ensure proper elimination of deviant behaviour in our educational system. Asute (2014) asserts that the importance of education in transforming the individual cannot be overemphasized; Akinade (2014) sees education as a sharp light leading people to knowledge. This implies that an educated person will help in transforming the country for positive growth and development.
Solomon (2010) explained that the dos and dons are not obeyed in our schools as there are much atrocities such as cases of extortion, sexual offences, bullying assault, dishonesty, uncordial behaviour, drug offences and dressing offences has been the canker-worm or virus that speaks volume in our society. It is also on this regard that Barr. S. (2010) asserts that deviant behaviour is a notable hindrance towards the achievement of quality education in our educational system. Secondary schools have the extraordinary difficult task of educating today’s youth who will someday be responsible for political, economic and cultural well-being of the nation. Ideally, contentious teacher and dedicated school administration provide students with essential social and intellectual skills.
With the government ban of corporal punishment in 2001 as a strategy for managing indiscipline in schools, schools administration are left with the option of suspension, expulsion and manual work but with the emphasis on guiding and counseling the victim. Guiding is more of directing, teaching and coaching. For example a tour guide is someone who directs, instructs, informs and teaches. He/she should have gone through that path many times to research and has taken time to research and familiarize with the place. A tour guide instills confidence and where need be holds one‟s hand; when one is hurt, he gives first aid. Counseling on the other hand is cultural. Culturally an older, more knowledgeable person, not only listened to client but he/she corrected and trained through proverbs, wise saying, folk tales and some songs and dances. Guidance and counseling has existed in one form or another since the very beginning of human civilization.
People sought comfort and solace from family and close association. However, it is only in the recent past that Counseling has emerged as a component of educational system which has deep roots in the values of individual freedom, rights, dignity and worth as a human being (Narayama, 2002:2) Guidance and counseling are two terms which are generally used interchangeably though 2 they are different in meaning. Guidance is defined by Narayana, 2002:34 as “the assistance given to an individual in making intelligent choices and adjustment” It is concerned with promoting the civilization of one‟s own potential. In other words, it helps people to solve problems, it does not solve problems. Counseling is defined by Gustard (1953) as “a learning oriented process, carried on in a simple, one to one social environment in which the counselor, professionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the latter‟s needs within the correct context of the total personnel programme, to learn how to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived realistically defined goals to the end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of the society”. Guidance and counseling movement had its origin in Europe and the U.S.A in the 19th century but did not gather momentum until the beginning of the 20th century.
The Pioneers, one of whom was Frank Parsons of Boston U.S.A concentrated on the provision of occupational information in the period between 1905 and 1909. Guidance in schools in Africa is a relatively new concept. Due to economic and social 3 changes which in turn have resulted in the weakening of the structures of the traditional society, boys and girls in schools need to be fully guided regarding the relationship between health and the environment, life-learning skills, the knowledge and attitudes that lead to success or failure in life, for instance different vocational avenues, understanding the requirement, demands, limitations and prospects of vocational development (Narayana, 2002). In Kenya guidance is becoming increasingly important because the country is faced with many new problems requiring special psychological or social service which are peripheral to education (Mutie and Ndambuki 1999:11). The students in our schools have not been exceptional. The youth in our contemporary society are facing major immerging issues like HIV / AIDS, poverty, child abuse, I internally displaced people due to tribal clashes and a lot of malpractice in counseling.
Counseling assists in opening educational and vocational opportunities to students. It helps them acquire the right values and attitudes that will make them productive and useful citizen. It will also help them acquire self-esteem, a sense of identity, values and beliefs that can guide their behaviour and form their characters. Lack of effective or proper guidance and counseling in schools may hinder students from discovering themselves, their potential and interest. Some students may go to school, and leave without any idea of the kind of jobs upon their “blink” future. Therefore, young people need guidance and counseling than ever before, for they are living in a considerably more complex world than it was ten years ago (Makinde, 1984:177).
In schools, if the collaboration between teachers and students is good, students learn in a practical way. Young people develop degrees of freedom in their lives as they become aware of options and take advantage of them. At it’s best, counseling should enable people to throw off chains and manage life situations effectively (UNESCO, 2000:10). The term counseling is used is used number of ways. For instance, counseling may be viewed as a series of definite direct contacts between a counselor and client aimed at offering the client assistance in adjusting effectively to himself / herself and the environment, as a series of intentions or as a psychological process in terms of its goals (June, 200:3-4). The counselor must therefore go beyond mere interest in the subject and equip himself/herself with the relevant knowledge because counseling deals with complex domain of human behavior.
The Influence Of Behavioural Counseling On Deviant Behaviors Of Secondary School Students
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The rate of failure and poor academic performance in Economics of senior secondary school system is a serious problem that requires the attention of all the stakeholders in education from the ministry of education to the students in Economics. This has therefore become a source of concern to educators and planners, parents, teachers, government and the public.
The Government of Nigeria in 2004 through its national policy on education highlighted the need for guidance and counseling services in Nigeria’s educational system to address the young people’s apparent lack of awareness concerning potential career choices and skills on how to deal with some social problems. This called for the training of teachers in the field of guidance and counseling (Republic of Nigeria, 2007). This study calls for an evaluation on follow-up of what has transpired in our schools since then, for reports of rampant students‟ riot and property destruction have continued to feature up to this moment. There seems to be a real social problem and this study actually seeks to find out the cause of this predicament, if it has to do with lack of adequate training among the teacher counselor or limitations put forward by the school administration or the laxity of the parents, the students deviance, or poor governance. It is against this background this study aims to investigate the Influence Of Behavioural Counseling On Deviant Behaviors Of Secondary School Students in the study area.