Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools

Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools
Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools

ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools. Three research hypotheses were formulated and all focused on teaching’ effectiveness with respect to students’ academic performance in Economics. A detail literature review was obtained from books and journals. The review was aimed at developing appreciation on the previous study done in this area. Ex-post-facto design was adopted. The schools were randomly selected from public Secondary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Economics Achievement Test was administered to students in the selected schools. It was the analysis of the results obtained from the response to the instrument that provided solutions to the research hypotheses formulated at the beginning of the study.


Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools



1.1       Background of the Study

The quality of education at any level depends largely on the qualification, commitment, and effectiveness of the teachers. Thus, the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) states that “no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers”. Teacher’s effectiveness is a matter of the degree to which teachers achieve desired effects upon the students. Ukeje (2004) opines that the performance of the students in schools positively correlated with successful and effective teaching.

Economics is a realistic subject that studies human beings in the real life situation. One salient fact derived from the study of Economics is the recognition of human being as the most important aspect of learning and development of purposeful skills and knowledge to enable them function well in the society. It is essential for teachers to use child-centered methods to realize the stated objectives, goals and aims of the subject. Abdu-Raheem (2011) observed that the objective of Economics is yet to be achieved as a result of poor teaching and lack or inadequacy of instructional materials to motivate students.

The effectiveness of the various methods of teaching Economics in secondary schools has been a matter of great concern to the stakeholders in education over the last two decades. This is because secondary school has been described as the determinant of the success and failure of the whole education system. Based on the philosophy of education in Nigeria, the ultimate aim of secondary school education is to transform the individual into a sound and effective citizen (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).

Education is very important for every nation of the world. It is important because the transmission of cultural heritage and technological advancement of any nation depends on it. In recognition of the importance of education, every nation including Nigeria earmarks huge budgetary allocations for it yearly (Nwosu, 2018). To account for the school fees collected and to maintain appreciable number of students in their schools, the school proprietors strive to provide enabling environment for effective teaching and learning to thrive. A high quality assurance in schools entail providing most of the factors that enhance effective teaching and learning which ultimately affect students’ academic performance. These factors as enumerated by Postlethwaite (2017) include but not limited to teacher–variables. Of all these factors, the ones that are touted to exert most influence on the learning outcomes are the “teacher-variables” as the teacher is the ultimate implementer of the curriculum (Postlethwaite, 2017). One of the teacher-variables which contributes immensely to enhance students’ academic performance is the teaching (teacher) effectiveness. Effective teaching is a term synonymous with teaching (teacher) effectiveness and was defined by Afe (2003) as the type of teaching characterized by the exhibition of intellectual, social and emotional stability, love for children and positive disposition towards the teaching profession and ability to inspire good qualities in students.

The educational analysis undertaken in Nigeria by the Federal Government through the instrumentalists of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS, 2015) indicate that more than forty-nine percent (49%) of the teachers in Nigeria are unqualified. This spotlighted the quality of workers constituting the teaching profession in various school subjects in the secondary schools in Nigeria. The teachers responsible for teaching Economics as a subject in the various Junior Secondary Schools would probably be among the said over forty percent unqualified teachers. As important as the knowledge of Economics is in providing them with the necessary skills for social, cultural, and economic integration in the society, it appears students’ achievement in this subject at the secondary school level is dwindling than in the other related subjects.   

Teachers’ effectiveness may be the prime determinant of performance in the subject. Ineffective teaching in secondary schools arise probably from the quality of teachers recruited to teach. In many secondary schools, subjects are taught by people who are neither interested nor qualified in teaching the subjects. Secondary schools teachers need to be professionally qualified to enable them work effectively with students in stimulating and directing their growth in the desired directions.

Studies have also shown that teachers’ experience exerts a great influence on the academic performance of students. Afe (2013) argued that a good foundation is necessary to attract more students and stressed that performance in separate subjects at the junior secondary school may be due to the foundation laid on Economics learnt at the elementary and junior secondary levels. Adunola (2011) showed that teaching experience in external examination such as West African Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE), National Examination Council (NECO), National Business and Technical Education Examination (NABTEB) and the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) is very necessary.

Researchers have carried out studies on teachers’ demographic variables as age, experience, gender, attitude, academic qualifications and students’ academic performance as they influence students’ academic performance. A significant relationship exists between teachers’ variables in teaching such as gender, area of specialization, possession of academic qualification in education and the learning outcomes of secondary school students. It was also found out that there is no significant relationship between effective teaching and students’ performance at the senior secondary school certificate level. For this research study, the main goal was to carry out an assessment of effective teaching and students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.     

Teaching Effectiveness and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools

1.2       Statement of the Problem 

Academic performance of students in Nigeria particularly the students from this study area, on the average has witnessed a steady decline in recent times. Ozordi (2010), reflecting on the state of education in the country lamented that the present-day secondary school students, on the average, can no longer do what primary school pupils used to do in those days academic-wise.

The persistent problem of poor performance of students in Economics at the junior secondary level remains very worrisome to stakeholders in the government, state and Nigeria in general. Scholars have attributed the problem to poor handling of the subject by in inexperienced teachers who are not well versed in the subject as well as in classroom dynamics. It has been suggested that the demand of the syllabus is so high that only experienced teachers who can teach the subject effectively by employing various strategies and tactics to carry the learners along should be made to handle it at this level of education for better results.

Over the years, teaching which used to be a noble profession has been taken over by impostors who have no business in the class. The low employment opportunities prevalent in the country have contributed to inundate the classroom with unqualified teachers who look upon teaching as a stop-gap which should be jettisoned as soon as their dream jobs are obtained. Qualified teachers are teachers who received relevant training in education for their teaching subjects up to a minimum level. (Chang, 2010). Such teachers are not familiar with the intricacies of teaching; they have low motivational level and may not bother much about their efficiency or teaching effectiveness. It is in realization of current trend of recruitment of unqualified teachers to teach in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area that prompted the researcher to embark on the present study which is geared towards investigating the effective teaching and students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.