ABSTRACT: The study investigates Teaching Methods and Learning of Basic Science in Secondary Schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprised of one thousand eight hundred and forty-four (1,844) Junior Secondary Two Students in Nine (9) public secondary schools in the study area. The sample size was eighty (80) students selected using simple random sampling technique. The major instrument for data collection was a questionnaire titled “Teaching Method and the Learning of Basic Science Questionnaire (TMLBSQ). The data obtained were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (PPMC).
The major findings of the study indicated that; there was a strong significant relationship between activity based method of teaching and the learning of Basic Science; and also that there was a significant relationship between demonstration method of teaching and the learning of Basic Science. It was therefore recommended amongst others that; workshops and seminar should be organized from time to time for teachers to properly communicate the new methods of instruction as well as appraisals on how the methods of instruction are being implemented so that the teachers can borrow a lift on the implementation of practical activities as well as better teaching methodologies in the process of teaching and learning of Basic Science.
Teaching Methods and Learning of Basic Science in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the study
Integrated science education was introduced to education system in 1972 to serve as a beginning course in science at the primary and junior secondary school level. The emphasis of the programmed is on the development of skills of inquiry, manipulative skills, and scientific process as opposed to role leaning (Emeka and Ode Toyinbo, 2003). Moreso, there has been groining public concern about state of teaching and learning of integrated science in Nigeria, Bimbola and Daniel (2009) opined that this situation arise mainly as a result of a failure within teaching and learning context, which clearly fails to illustrated the connections between classroom integrated science teaching and the environment where learners come from.
Adejoh (2006) also lamented on the delivery methods, where it was stated that theory is emphasized than acquisition of practical skills, teacher teach integrated science with out designing practical activities or experiment. Aqbo and Emmanuel (2011) supported this vices where they explained that teaching science our schools has been talk and chalk with meaningful practical works. This implies that the entire teaching process in junior secondary schools is theory based; aspect of practical activities is completely neglected.
Absence of practical activities in the teaching of integrated science makes the teaching and learning Ineffective. A practical activity here means a state of being active in the classroom teaching where pupils (students can use their manipulative skills in learning of should that large number of student learn very little aspect of science at the lower level of education as a result of poor methods of teaching and lack of materials for practical activities in this condition leaning tend to be by role and copying of notes from the chalkboard, which make learning of science concepts very difficult. And this has serious implication for the students in cognitive and psychomotor achievement in the subject.
Ajeyalami (2011) summarized holy practical activated are conducted in primary and secondary school levels in Nigeria as follows that, at primary school level there is little or no science taught, so little opportunities for pupils to practice what scientist do. At the junior secondary school level the teacher engages more in information giving and or lecture, which is highly teacher centered at the senior secondary level, students are not normally exposed to laboratory senior school certificate examination (SSCE) inmost schools.
Method of teaching is a supporting device which a teacher uses to emphasize his/her ideas through communication and manipulation of other resources (Brumner, 2010).there are different methods for effective and efficient teaching of integrated science. These methods in dulcet lecture, demonstration, discussion, field trip excursion, assignment, laboratory, activity and co-operative teaching methods etc. Therefore, selection of appropriate methods for integrated science instruction depends on the type of lessons, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the method and the nature of instruction itself (Aina, 2010). As such this study intends to investigate how teaching methods influence the learning of Basic Science in Secondary Schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many Nigerian science students do not posses the exposure into practical activities, this lead to poor performance in science, as was evident from second international science competition where Nigerian students comes last in primary science and second to the last in secondary science category among participating countries (Ogunmade, 2005). The above showed that students have been performing poorly in Basic Science.
Moreover, several studies have shown also that students perform poorly in Basic Science as indicated by Uzoji (2011) reveals that an analysis of Junior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (JSSCE) in Basic Science in public junior secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Mateau State from 2000-2004 showed consistence poor performance with majority of the students scoring less than 50% in Basic Science each year. This statistics corroborates with the result given by Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Education (M.O.E) which reveals that from 2002-2011 only 30% of the total number of students that sat for JSSCE pass Basic Science with credit level.
This poor performance is as a result of teacher dominated method of teaching as well as non inclusion of practical activities like, demonstration, activity etc. in the teaching and learning of Basic Science. Moreso, it was stressed that lecturer methods pattern does not produce effective learning of science. It is against this backdrop that, this study sought to find out the relationship between teaching method and the learning of Basic Science in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area.
Teaching Methods and Learning of Basic Science in Secondary Schools
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will be of great benefit to teaching students, government and researchers in many ways.
- To the government, the study will remind on the need to make teaching of science activity based as it was prescribed in the national policy on education, tha the teaching methods to be employ in the primary and junior secondary schools should de-emphasize the memorization and regurgitation of facts.
- To the teachers, it will help them to understand the appropriate and effective method of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties.
- To the students, the study will help them who have all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers.
- The upcoming researchers and students who will like to work on this area will find this work as a reference material.
- Finally all the stakeholders in this study will benefit from the findings, as the learning of Basic science will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examination.