ABSTRACT: This study investigated the Methods of Teaching and Biology Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools. The population of the study consisted of the senior secondary two (2) Biology students from five (5) selected secondary schools in the study area totaling one hundred (100) students. Three research questions and three hypotheses were posed to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. Intact classes were employed to select the respondents. The instrument used for data collection was Biology Achievement Test (BAT). The data collected was analyzed using independent t-test.
Methods of Teaching and Biology Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools
The result of the findings revealed that demonstration, cooperative and discussion methods influence the learning of Biology among the students positively. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers should use learners’ centered methods of teaching in the teaching and learning of Biology as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the learning of Biology.
1.1 Background to the Study
Teaching is a continuous process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners through the use of appropriate methods. In order to bring desirable changes in students, teaching methods used by teacher should be best for the subject. Appropriate teaching methods enhance work effective learning if they suit learners’ needs because every learner interprets and responds to questions in a diverse ways. As such, teaching methods that suits students’ needs influence students’ academic attainments.
Good Teaching methods facilitated desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn Ekanem (2016).
The skilful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the personality of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that coupled with appropriate instructional materials, suitable methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies to all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.
The use of appropriate teaching method incorporates an ordered way of accomplishing an end or performing a task. Etuk, Afangideh, Uya (2013) as cited in Adediwura and Tayo (2017), described methods as patterns to be followed in teaching/learning process to drive home a point. Whether in formal or informal education effective, teaching method allows for the retention of learnt the concepts. The extent to which an instructional procedure is potent depends greatly upon its effective use by the instructor and the impression it leaves on the learner, which is usually evident in their attitude as well as performance (Umoren, 2011) in (Obanya, 1984).
A research on methods of teaching suggest that the ability of the teacher to impart knowledge so depends greatly on the method he applies during the teaching learning process. Where the method is defective, the students stand to lose as they hardly benefit from lessons. According to Uya (2008), for a teacher to be able to ensure order and enhance classroom learning, they have to possess necessary pedagogical skills which have to be systematic and methodological. They have to explore and make good use of their knowledge of instructional skills/methods, whether the method adopted falls within the spectrum of general or individualized instructional methods (Umoh, 2015). Esu (2013) opined that teaching, by its nature requires a variety of methods to facilitate teaching/learning in the class and to develop the child’s knowledge and understanding to the maximum.
There are many definitions of teaching method by different authors. Teaching method can be defined as a practical application of teaching principles based on the nature of learner, the nature of the subject and the learning needs of the students/students. According to Oyekan (2014), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. Some of the methods that are applicable to secondary Schools level of education include discussion method, Supervised Activity method, Activity method, Demonstration method, Games method, Excursion method, Storytelling method, Pictorial method and inquiry method.
The success of teaching lies mainly on the know-how of the subject involved and the use of appropriate method(s) that is required per time during the process of transfer of knowledge. A successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process. Vin-Mbah (2012) cited South and Laslett (1993) who described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth.
Teaching is also as an attempt to help someone acquire or change, some skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students. Effective teaching involves informing and explaining, stimulating, directing, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others. Methods therefore, refer to the processes and techniques a teacher uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.
It is of necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching methods which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher to realize the objective of the lesson. Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out. Ckenzie, et al (1980) in Adesanya (2016) argues that the objectives of the teacher should also be considered before the selection of any method. It is against this backdrop that the study intends to investigate the difference between teaching method and Biology students’ performance in secondary schools.
Methods of Teaching and Biology Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many methods of teaching exist in education. All the methods are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate methods. Also the methods used in teaching the young ones are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.
There has been a public outcry about the abysmal performance of students in both internal and external examinations, West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) included. The parents put the blame on teachers and the teachers in the other hands blamed the government for not providing the necessary infrastructural and instructional resources and also on the students for their poor attitude and lack of interest towards learning. Therefore, it is incumbent upon all educators to not only know their teaching style so that teaching has a two-fold purpose where teachers teach and students learn.
Consequently, knowing how your students learn and what methods best fit your classroom and school are fundamental in the process of learning. As a result, the question that arises in education is, what are those effective teaching methods that make teachers to achieve the educational goals and objectives? Thus, in view of the significance of teacher as facilitator of learning through use of relevant methods, the problem of this study is to investigate how discussion, cooperative, inquiry, demonstration, lecture and conventional methods affect students’ learning of Biology in secondary schools.