ABSTRACT: The research was conducted to examine methods of teaching and academic performance of students in Physical and health Education in secondary schools. The research design adopted for this study was a survey research design. A review of the related literature was used as a guide in establishing principles for the study. The population for this study was two thousand, eight hundred and ninety-seven (2,897) Physical and health Education Students from junior secondary two (JSS2) classes in the study area according to education board. The sample size of two hundred (200) Physical and health Education Students were randomly selected for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Physical and health Education Achievement Test was the main instrument for data collection. The data generated from the instruments were analyzed using independent t-test statistics.
The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in academic performance of students’ taught Physical and health Education using discussion method and those taught using lecture method. It also revealed that there is a significant difference between academic performance of students taught Physical and health Education using demonstration strategy and those taught using discussion method. The results of the study equally uncovered that when Physical and health Education students are taught with discussion method they get first hand encounter and experience with equipment and machinery which in turn help in enhancing their academic performance.
1.1 Background to the study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change to the learner (Tebabel and Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission teachers should apply appropriate method of teaching that best suit specific objectives. The goal of teaching is to impart knowledge to the learners and outside the classroom. Teaching involves the use of appropriate strategy or methods that will capture the attention and interest of the learners. This is because the rule of teachers is to guide the learners properly by arousing their interest to participate fully in order to attain the goals, learners are usually given the opportunity to ask questions and obtain information to analyze their problems and purpose solutions through various skills, by marking judgement and evaluating their progress.
Teaching is an attempt to help someone, acquire the prerequisite skills, attitude, knowledge and values which will enhance a change in behaviour. Teacher’s task is to create a conducive atmosphere for learning and ensure behaviour of the learners/student. This implies that success in teaching is measured by the degree to which the teacher is able to achieve the desired learning outcome. To achieve this, the teacher must select the content and method to use (star, 2010). Moreover, research on the teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching method enhance growth in student learning, and remarkable academic performance of student in various examinations to an ineffective teaching method (Ademola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching method indicates that quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievement of learners.
According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcome. In order for teaching method to be effective, Ademola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that takes cognizance of the magnitude of the complexity of the concept to be covered.
The Nigeria certificate in Education/Distance learning system course book (2019) asserts that, teaching methods as a process of selecting, directing controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable learning outcome (Eddie 2006). To achieve the objectives of education as selected by the federal government of Nigeria in National Policy on Education (2014), asserts that serious efforts must be made to ensure that proper teaching process takes place in schools. This implies that conducive learning environment must be put in place and appropriate strategies must be adopted Coilsamalia, 2015).
Research by Reid and Shahi (2017) have shown that the most rewarding approach for teaching physical and health is the use of participatory approach. This method actually involves students participation resulting in new discovery through activities and discussion. There are different techniques for effective and efficient teaching which include: Demonstration method, lecture method, and discussion method etc. Selection of appropriate techniques for physical and health education instrument depends on theoretical competence of the teacher to handle the technique and the nature of instruction itself. As such, this research intends to highlight how methods of teaching influence academic performance of physical and health education students is secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area.
However, methodology is very vital in any teaching/learning process. The method used by a teacher may promote or hinder learning of physical and health education in Ika Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Academic performance of a student depends on the teaching method used by the teacher. This could be the consequence of ineffective teaching which might cause poor academic performance in physical and health education. Academic performance are somewhat associated with methods of teaching, for instance, students with better performance scored higher in concrete experience, abstract conceptualization and reflective observation than those with poor academic performance (Cano and Justiceca, 2003). This could be the consequent of ineffective teaching which might cause poor academic performance in physical and health Education.
Physical Education is education that is aimed at developing student’s physical competence and knowledge of movement and safety, and their ability to use these to perform in a wide range of activities associated with the development of active and healthy lifestyle, hence the adoption of methods that will sufficiently convey this message to the understanding of the students is a necessity. The efficient transfer of knowledge here requires some instructional strategies. The physical and health education teacher needs to acquire competence in transferring the content to the learner and mostly competence in the use of variety of teaching method.
Student’s poor performance in physical and health education has been the main concern of this research. Derek 2018 reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school student studying physical and health which identifies persistent use of the traditional mode of instruction as one of the major short comings that affect the learning of higher achievement in physical and health Education which has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional strategy adopted in physical and health Education.