Learning Strategies And Academic Performance Among Junior Secondary School Students In Business Studies

Learning Strategies And Academic Performance Among Junior Secondary School Students In Business Studies
Learning Strategies And Academic Performance Among Junior Secondary School Students In Business Studies

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to examine Learning Strategies and Academic Performance among Junior Secondary School Students in Business Studies. To achieve the objectives of the study, three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Literature related to the study was reviewed. This research study adopted quasi- experimental design method. The population of this study consisted of all students in the public secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The research study adopted simple random sampling technique in carrying out the study. Therefore, two hundred (200) students were randomly selected from six (6) public secondary schools in the area and was used for the study. The instrument used for the collection of data for this study was Business Studies Achievement Test (BSAT).

The data obtained were analyzed statistically using independent t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that, learning strategies influences students’ performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. It was recommended among others that, Students should be hard working while studying by adopting good learning strategies so as to achieve effective result in the teaching/learning process. Government should provide a conducive study environment in secondary schools for the students so as to improve their academic performance.



Learning Strategies And Academic Performance Among Junior Secondary School Students In Business Studies




1.1     Background to the Study

In order to make children learn effectively the teacher has to adopt the right learning approach of teaching. There are various approaches for learning, such as independent learning, mastery learning, co- operative learning, activity based teaching – learning strategies, etc. but, it is clear from the researches that activity- based teaching is effective in language learning. The National Policy on Education (2013) recommended that a warm, welcoming and encouraging approach, in which all concerned share a solicitude for the needs of the child, is the best motivation for the child to attend school and learn.

A child-centered and activity-based process of learning should be adopted at the primary stage. One should not view students as “empty vessels” to be filled with academic content. Therefore, activity- based teaching – learning strategy provides right environment to create educational settings where the student work together and learn by doing, learning by playing , learning by enjoying, learning by co-operation , learning by activity and learning without stress.

Strategy is the procedure or method by which goal is reached, a purpose accomplished or a result is achieved. It can otherwise be referred to as teaching technique. Verner’s (2002) defined teaching technique as the relationship established by the educator to facilitate learning among a particular group of students in a specific situation. In a simpler language, it is what the teacher does to help students learn. In an attempt to create a better learning environment for the learner, Spitze cited in Salami and Ukoh (2003), gave a list of teaching principles as follows:

  • If learning situation is a part of ‘real life’ or seems to be real to the student, he will perceive the relevance and be more eager to learn.
  • If the learner is an active participant, his interest is likely to be greater and achievement more rapid
  • If the learner is mentally and emotionally involved in learning situation, motivation and learning are increased
  • If the student finds pleasure in the learning situation, he is more likely to continue to learn.
  • If the student develop skills for independent learning, he can continue to learn when no teacher is available to direct him.
  • If the student sees usefulness in his learning activities motivation will be increased
  • If the learner discovers an intellectual relationship, he has greater joy in learning and greater interest in continue learning than when he is told the relationship.

The application of these principles make learning more certain to involve learners, less abstract, less tedious and less threatening which clearly support the principle of learner centered technique. Several methods may have these qualities but co-operative learning strategy was ranked first in teaching approaches that promote greater wonder thinking, problem solving and achievement. (Joyce, Shomers and Rolheiser, Benreth 2007).

Co-operative learning strategy is a method of teaching in which students work together in small heterogeneous group to complete a problem, project or any other instructional goal, while teachers act as a guide or facilitator. This method is characterized by the following: Learners positively depend on each other, engage in face to face interaction, assessed individually and held accountable for equally having and contributing to the mastery of learning goals, develop appropriate collaborative and interpersonal skills to teach and encourage each other to learn and reflect and assess the effectiveness of growing, for future learning (Johnson and Johnson 1999, Kagan 1994). This method is different from the traditional group method where the student have low independence, in co-operative learning students take responsibility only for themselves.

The co-operative learning strategy is primarily a pedagogical method developed as a means to reduce competition in America schools which Colman (2009) identified as a negative component of the educational system. The discovery that students can get information from sources other than the teacher is able to expand the resources of the learner.

A teaching method whereby the student is featured as the active participant, where the teacher assumes the roles of a facilitator, mediator and assessor of learning have been found to be superior in developing students’ abilities in applying concepts and personal growth, developing positive attitudes, fostering motivation, and encouraging appropriate group social skills (Welbery, 2009). An approach of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating object by themselves and with the help of the teacher encompass the active learning strategies. These strategies have been described as a process of allowing the student to take the leading role in his or her own learning experience. The active learning strategies encourage students to actively use their intuition, imagination, and creativity because the method starts with the specific and moves to the general. The teacher presents examples and the students work with the examples until they discover the interrelationships. Bruner (2001) believes that classroom learning should take place through inductive reasoning, that is, by using specific examples to formulate a general principle.

For instance, if students are presented with enough examples of equations, they will eventually reason through what the basic rules of equations must be. The teacher therefore acts as a facilitator and guides, making it possible for the learner to reach mutually-agreed upon goals.

The teacher serves as a resource person to stimulate, motivate, clarify and explain. The idea is that students are likely to remember concepts they understand on their own.  Problem solving is a method of teaching used to accomplish instructional goals of learning basic facts, concepts, and procedures, as well as goals for problem solving within problem.

Learning Strategies And Academic Performance Among Junior Secondary School Students In Business Studies

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The study was necessitated by the declining performance of students in Business Studies education at the junior secondary school level in Nigeria. This abysmal performance was attributed to wrong use of teaching approaches in Business Studies such as traditional method which include memorization, recitation and rote, lecture and note taking. Traditional method is when a teacher directs students to learn through memorization and recitation techniques thereby not developing their critical thinking problem solving and decision making skills.  Therefore, the present study intends to determine if the modern method has varying effect on students’ performance in Business Studies

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