Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools

Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools
Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area. To guide the study, two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses were formulated. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used for the study. The population consisted of all senior secondary school two students in Etinan Local Government Area. The sample size was 100 students drawn from four secondary schools in the study area. Quasi experiment design was used for the study. Data were collected through BAT and analyzed using mean to answer the research questions and independent t-test to answer the research hypotheses.

The result of the findings shows that improvised materials have influence on the academic performance of the students in biology. It was also revealed that there is significant influence of male students taught with improvised materials to the female students taught with improvised materials. It was recommended among others that teachers should be encouraged by both the school authority and government to improvise instructional material where the real ones are not available.

Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools



1.1     Background to the Study

The importance of improvised materials in the teaching and learning of biology cannot be over-emphasized. Infant successful implementation of biology curriculum depends on the quality and quantity of improvised materials available to teachers and students for use in schools. Improvised materials stimulate learners’ interest; help both the teachers and learners to overcome some limitations during presentation of subject maters.

According to Eya (2004), improvised materials enhance learning and make it more pleasurable. They are use as checks to teachers’ knowledge and means of transmission. Improvised materials help teachers to guide, co-ordinate, supervised and have enough time for correction thereby bringing variety in the classroom situation. Instructional material consists of variety of equipments and materials used for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self activity on the part of the pupils or students. This equipment includes chalkboard, real objects, models, pictures, charts, television, computers, textbooks project, and non projected materials etc.

Usman (2002) explain that instructional materials make the lessons captivating, for instance, Biology teacher can describe atom as consisting of electrons, protein and neutron but it is very hard to tell the student exactly what an atom looks like without a picture for clarity. This picture of an atom is an instructional material which helps the students to understand the lesson easily.

Improvised materials have found to enhance the quantity of the learning experience for learners in many ways. It helps students participate in the learning process and as well create a more relaxed learning environment. They provide storage banks for information that can easily be retrieved and in the classroom, lkpe (2009).

In spite of the importance of improvised materials, availability and adequacy of instructional materials for teaching and learning of biology posed a problem; this is because the supply of improvised materials is affected by the level of fondling of education. In this country, population explosion of students and accessibility to local materials constitute a problem of improvised materials. Also the ability of government to support the necessary instructional materials to schools constitutes a problem. Lack of these materials, hamper the teaching and learning of biology. In an attempt to reduce abstract concept, improvised materials becomes indispensable.

Naobi (2004) reported that improvisation is an act of using materials obtainable from the local environment or design by the teacher or with the help of local personnel to enhance instruction.

Improvisation helps the teacher to think and research for cheaper, better, and faster method of making the teaching and learning process easier for students’ thereby promoting creativity and self reliance. Improvised materials are a solution to unavailability and inadequacy of instructional materials in schools and helps facilitate the teaching and learning processes.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The growing numbers of failure in biology in public examination in recent time among our secondary schools students have become a cause of concern and have raised doubt on the effect of improvised materials utilized by teachers in schools. There is need to carry out study using an improvised materials whereby students will be helped to become active learners rather than passive learners.


Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary Schools

 1.3     Purpose of the study

1.4     Significant of the study

The outcome of the study will be of immense benefit to a lot of people.

  1. It will benefit the teachers who will realize the importance of improvised materials play on the students’ academic performance. They have to improvise where these materials are not available.
  2. The students themselves would realize that the improvised materials enhance understanding and contribute positively to their learning. This is because what they see and feel or touch is retained and reproduce when needed. Having realized it importance they will always be ready to partake in the production of improvised materials when called upon to do so by the teachers.
  3. The school authority will benefit from the study. This is because by the time it is known that improvised materials enhance good learning performance, the teachers will be encourage to improvised when the original one is not available.
  4. The government will benefit from this study by realizing the importance of improvised materials in teaching and learning.
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