Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers in Secondary Schools

Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers in Secondary Schools
Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers in Secondary Schools

Abstract: This study examined job variables and job satisfaction among integrated science teachers in secondary schools. Three research questions were formulated and tested to guide the study. The study adopted a survey research design. Five (5) out of nine (9) public secondary schools in the study area were randomly selected to constitute a sample size of fifteen (15)  Integrated Science teachers while the total population of the study comprised of one hundred and two (102) Integrated Science teachers in the study area. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire title “Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers Questionnaire (JVJSISTQ)”. Simple percentage (%) technique was used to analyze the three research questions.

Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers in Secondary Schools

Findings revealed that, job variables has a significance effect on job satisfaction among Integrated Science teachers in Secondary schools as evident in the result investigating promotion, prompt payment of salary and in-service training and job satisfaction. Based on this finding, it was recommended among other that Government should endeavour to pay teachers’ salary when due so that they can be motivated and enhance job satisfaction.




1.1     Background of the Study

Secondary Education is the level of education that determines the academic and professional career of students. Perhaps, it is on the basic of this understanding that the Federal Republic of Nigeria articulates the broad aims of secondary education to include preparation of students for useful living in the society and preparation for higher education. However, the aims of secondary education in Nigeria cannot be successfully achieved without motivated and committed teachers. This is why the issue of job variables has attracted the attention of the public, educators, and other stakeholders because job variables results in job satisfaction.

Job variables according to Mpat (2015) are those factors in any organization that has the ability to influence the workers either positively or negatively such as promotion, prompt payment of salary, in-service training, security, good working environment etc. They are those factors that enhance job satisfaction of secondary school teachers and these factors also include staff development, working conditions and motivation. Job satisfaction is the extent in which workers in any organization are contented, having pride and happiness or fulfill their desire in their job (Okoli, 2014).

Achieving teachers’ job satisfaction, they must be motivated through job variables. Acquiring teachers’ services, developing their skills motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to their school are essential to achieving school organizational objectives (Ala, 2011). Teachers’ development is associated with the general improvement of teachers in terms of attitude to work, behaviour, skills and improved job performance. Teachers should be provided with adequate opportunities for training and retraining programmes (in-service education) to improve their knowledge and skills to enhance job satisfaction.

Working condition can enhance or hinder teachers’ job satisfaction. The physical conditions under which teachers carry out their work have been linked up with their school commitment. The physical working conditions involves the quality of the physical environment in which teachers work and include things like lightning, temperature conditions, ventilation, noise level, spacious classroom, good maintenance of facilities and library resources. All this affect working environment and shape teachers’ attitudes either positively or negatively towards work. A good reward plans for workers motivate them to perform their job better and this promotes job satisfaction.

Denga (2013) report that workers, whose needs goals and aspirations are thwarted by the organization, develop feelings of low self-worth, become apathetic disinterested. Frustrated and tend to withhold self-commitment to work. In effective schools where teachers are satisfied they can be spurred to hard work, and will become enthusiastic in the pursuance of school objectives. In addition to working conditions, findings suggests that secondary school teachers should well be remunerated and their promotions must be regular when due so that it could enhance the level of job satisfaction.

Institutional heads should provide suitable environment in work organization to reinforce job satisfaction. Alabi (2011) reported in her study that teacher motivation and development significantly predicted teacher productivity.

This finding shows that teachers need to be well-motivated in terms of status, recognition, remuration and training to enhance job satisfaction. Job security is another motivational variable. If teachers know that their jobs are secured, they will be well motivated to put in their best for the success of the school. Teachers need favourable working conditions, including attractive pay, job security, health and safety to be emotionally satisfied with their job. Finding shows that some teachers do abandon their primary responsibility and look for greener pastures.

It is against this background that the researcher considered it necessary to examine job variables and job satisfaction among integrated science teachers in secondary schools in the study area.

Job Variables and Job Satisfaction among Integrated Science Teachers in Secondary Schools

1.2     Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that the attitudes of teachers toward work are bad generally. This could be as a result of lack of prompt payment of salaries, lack of promotion etc. Unfortunately teachers are subjected to work under conditions where there are few or no office facilities, where classrooms are overcrowded with students, where promotion, payment of salaries and other entitlements are unduly delayed. Where teachers are inadequately motivated and where there is inadequate provision for in-service training of teachers. Working under such deplorable conditions, the morale of teachers could sag (Akpan, 2008). This could result in dissatisfaction of job among teachers.

Therefore, the resultant effect of this problems affect the educational system in which teachers are the anchor for the society at large, since the educational sector cannot produce the desired results. However, due to poor academic performance of students in Integrated Science student as the result of teachers’ actions, this study intends to examine job variables and job satisfaction among Integrated Science teachers

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