ABSTRACT: The study examined the utilization of improvised instructional materials and academic performance on physical education among secondary school students. A pretest, post test control group experimental design was adopted for the study. Data were collected using physical and health education achievement test (PHEAT) from a sample of 80 students made up of 40 male and 40 female from two public secondary schools. Independent t-test was used in analyzing the data; findings revealed that there is significant difference in academic performance of P.H.E. students taught P.H.E. using improvised instructional materials and those taught without it. Also there is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught P.H.E with improvised instructional material. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should organize seminar and workshops to sensitize P.H.E teacher on the need for improvised Instructional materials in teaching- learning.
UTILIZATION OF IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
Learning does not just occur; it comes through interaction with persons or things. When a person is engaged in a form of direct activity such could find himself/herself influenced by external ideas and emotion such a person is learning. Learning may be directly observed when someone is allowed to interact with the learning materials.
Instructional materials in Physical and Health Education are aids developed for the purpose of effective teaching of the subject and are acquired as instruments for implementing a given curriculum (Bassey, 2006). The importance of using instructional materials for teaching learning of Physical and Health Education is to assist in communicating permanently, information that are incidental to the process of teaching (Acons, 21003) and since facts and information in physical and health education are more reality retailed when supplemented with instructional material, the chances are that if the materials are carefully improvised selected, and skillfully used, they make learning more meaningful (Adeniyi,2001).
Udo (2003) pointed out instructional materials used in implementing Physical and Health Education Curriculum in secondary schools are not sufficient and call for the need for improvised materials. Instructional materials for effective teaching process in Physical and Health Education comprise of charts, the laboratory, physical education equipment recreational facilities, films and projects/life scale activity sites in addition to a functional department of the four elements of touch, sight, smell and hearing (Johnson, 2000) perhaps it may also be added that the entire environment in which the learners lives is a learning system.
Njoku (2007) maintained the fact that in Physical and Health Education there are three domain which must be attained, these include cognitive domain, effective domain and the psychomotor domain: These domains are achievable through a sufficient supply and use of improvised materials, improvised physical and health education enables research, are cheaper, are faster method of making teaching and learning process easier for the teacher and student, this is because students learn best when the subject matter is brought practically to their senses (Michael, 2002) BBC (2009) pointed out that the more the senses are stimulated the more a person learns and the more he retains. In line with this, Physical and Health Education teachers should exhibit resourcefulness by standard ones.
Improvised materials have been found as key to students success in Physical and Health Education as they affect their retention level of subject matter and academic performance Johnson (2005) maintained that improvised physical and health education materials enhances improved academic performance since it presents facts and information, arouse students interest and enthusiasm, principles and process they impress pictures and images (Graig, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The phenomenon of poor external results in Physical and Health Education among Nigerian students especially in Physical and Health Education has become a source of worry to successive government and major stakeholders in the education sector in the country (Okpala, 2006) over the years the majority of students that wrote terminal examination or sat for the May/June West African Examination Council (WAEC) examinations have been recording mass failure not only in the area of P.H. but also in the key subject like Mathematic, English, Chemistry, Biology and Physics (Okpala, 2006).
In 2010, the percentage of students who pass WAEC with credit in English, Physical and Health Education and Mathematics was below 50% (Okpala, 2010). The same poor performance radio (50%) were equally recorded by students in the subsequent years of 2011, 2012 and 2013. in the just released 2014/ NECO examination results it indicates that 47.1% of candidates had credits in Mathematics, English and Physical and Health Education. This ugly trend may have instigated the current worry among stakeholders as to factors responsible for the poor performance of students in physical and Health Education. This study seeks to answer the question:
Does improvised material in Physical and Health Education affect student performance? Would students taught with improvised materials perform better in Physical and Health Education than their counterpart taught without it?