Housing Problems In Nigeria With Special Reference To Uyo


1.1       Background of Study

Housing is a basic need of every human being just as food and clothing. It is very fundamental to the welfare, survival and health of man (Fadamiro, Taiwo and Ajayi, 2004). Hence, housing is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his place in the society. According to Eldredge [1967], housing represents a bundle of goods and services which facilitate and enhance good living, and a key to neighbourhood quality and preservation. Likewise, Agbola [1998], notes that housing is combination of characteristics which provide a unique home within any neighbourhood; it is an array of economic, social and phychological phenomena. In other word, housing could be seen as a multidimensional package of goods and services extending beyond shelter itself. It is widely acknowledged that adequate housing is essential for good life, is a key requirement for an efficient and satisfied labour force and the foundation of satisfactory community life. In developing countries, poor housing delivery has been attributed to inadequate mechanism and system for land allocation, funding, mortgage institutionand infrastructure (Encarta, 2007).

Shelter is central to the existence of men (kehinde, 2010); He also stated that housing involves access to land, shelter and the necessary amenities to make the shelter functional, convenient, aesthetically pleasing, safe and hygienic. According to him unsanitary, unhygienic, unsafe and inadequate housing can affect the security, physical health and privacy of man. Okafor (2016) asserted that housing all over the world has remained an interdependent phenomenon that face mankind and it represents one of the most basic human needs which no doubt has a profound impact on the health, welfare and productivity of every individual irrespective of social-economic status’ colour or creed. Housing problems one of the social problems bred by capitalism manifested as a particular form of housing need with the growth of the urban population and the transformation of a dwelling into a commodity; there is a sharp deteriorationin the working people`s living conditions and huge rise in apartment (The great soviet Encyclopedia, 2000).

Nigeria is perhaps the fastest urbanizing country in African continent. One of the most important challenges facing the country is the provision of affordable housing. As more and more Nigerians make towns and cities their homes, the resulting social, economic, environmental and political challenges need to be urgently addressed (Raji, 2008). A recent study of housing situations in Nigeria put existing housing stock at 23 per 1000 inhabitant. Housing deficit is put at 5million houses (Mabogunje 2004) while 12 trillion will be required to finance deficit. This is about 4 times the annual national budget of Nigeria (fHA2007). According to Human Development Nigeria (2000), housing problems result mainly from unprecedented growth of urban population. In Nigeria, according to this source, the states with largest proportions of urban dwellers far in excess of the national average are Lagos (94%), Oyo (69%), Rivers (60%), Anambra(62%) and Uyo(60%). However, prices and rents, on the other hand has grown ahead of general inflation. Making matters worse, the composition of houses for sale and rent on the market has been inexorably shifting towards very expensive house (Nubi. 2008)

The problem of adequate housing is not peculiar to Nigeria. According to the UN habitat 30 percent of the world’s urban population lives in slums, deplorable conditions where people suffer from one or more of the following basic deficiencies in their housing; lack of access to improved water, lack of access to improved sewage facilities (not even on out house); living in over- crowded conditions; living in buildings that are structurally unsound; or living in a situation with no security oftenure (that is, without legal rights to be where they are, as renters or as owners). The same report says that 35 percent of the world’s rural population lives in unacceptable conditions. Overall more than two billion people are in desperate need of better housing (Enoghase, S.; Airahuobhour, S.Oladunjoye, P; Okwuke, A Ogunwusi; Band Bakare, S. 2015).

According to the former Minister of Lands and Housing, Mrs Akon Eyakenyi; a major impediment to construction of housing units in Nigeria however, is the high cost of land. To meet Nigeria’s need of 17 million housing units would require at the minimum about 17 million plots of land. When converted to a more common units to approximately 11,470 square kilometer, roughly the size of Rivers State, or three times the size of Lagos state (Enoghaseet.al , 2015). In as much as decent housing is important to every individual, society and nation, housing crisis remains one of the global problems confronting both urban and rural dwellers, particularly in most developing countries such as Nigeria. It is a serious and rising challenge which has become defiant to official and private interventions. Thus, in spite of several political, social and religious initiatives taken in the past toward improving housing supply in some of these developing countries, a great proportion of their population still dwell in substandard and poor houses. Therefore, this research is focused on Identification of Housing Problems in Nigeria using Uyo as Case study.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The importance of housing to man remains an incontrovertible fact; that housing is second to food, in the basic needs of man is generally becoming old fashioned as some schools of thought are now saying give us house and we will take care of food (sustainable cities programme, Egypt, 2003). The problem of housing shortage grows worse by the day in many developing nations including Nigeria, conceivably major tract of housing crisis notable in urban centersin most developing nations is that of inadequate supply relative to demand (Olutuah, 2000). According, to him the shortage, in both quantitative and qualitative terms is more acute in urban centers. Omojinmi (2000) observed that people who sleep in indecent urban Nigeria are more than people who sleep in decent houses; thus, it is ascertain that there is inadequacy in population in Nigeria (Arayela, 2003).

Government drive toward housing for all as contained in the National Housing Policy, which aims to provide affordable housing for all, has so far not been achieved and no serious efforts are being made towards implementation as it continues to be an illusion and frustration to the larger population (Adejumo, 2008). The failure has been partly attributed to the lack of political will and poor implementation (Adejumo, 2008). Uyo metropolis is an important commercial center in Niger Delta Nigeria. Its strategic location in the region of Nigeria led to its population growth primarily through Immigration from the surrounding rural areas. The rapid urbanization and industrialization growth in Uyo results in shortage of housing and other related problems including associated infrastructure which have compound housing problems over the years. Thus, there is need to identify housing problems as none of the works reviewed handled this, and by this identification be able to tackle the problem of housing and proffer lasting solutions.

Originally posted on February 19, 2021 @ 1:19 pm

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.

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