Abstract: The study examines Principals’ Leadership Styles and Teaching Effectiveness of Business Studies Teachers in Secondary Schools. The survey research design was adopted in the study. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were formulated and tested. The population of the study included all the 20 Business studies teachers in the 13 public secondary schools in the study area. The sample size was 20 Business studies teachers in 13 public secondary schools in the study area. A 15 item questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Principal Leadership Style and Teaching Effectiveness (QPLSTE)” was used as the instrument for data collection. The simple percentage and independent t-test statistical method were adopted to analyze the data collected.
Findings revealed that the autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style and laisse-faire leadership style of the principal influences to a large extent the teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Based on the findings, it was recommended that principals should adopt autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style and laissez-faire leadership style of administration in secondary schools, as these leadership styles will enhance staff job performance and goal achievement in the schools.
Principals’ Leadership Styles And Teaching Effectiveness Of Business Studies Teachers In Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is the greatest resource that society can provide to a child. The prosperity of a child in education affects the success that the child may achieve in life significantly. Fisher (2015) noted that all schools should be able to excel if the principal’s leadership style is a positive influence. Normally, principals’ leadership styles are seen in their behaviors and how they interrelate with teachers, students, parents, and other school staff. If the principal has an effective leadership style, he or she can engender a positive climate in the school. Teachers, students, staff, and parents will come to feel more comfortable and satisfied with their children’s educational experience. However, if the principal is ineffective, then the opposite may equally be held true. School leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, students and parents towards achieving common educational aims.
The term school leadership came into currency in the 20th century for several reasons (Aacha, 2010). Demands were made on schools for higher level of pupil’s achievement, and schools were expected to improve and reform. These expectations were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. Maintenance and status quo was no longer considered acceptable. Administration and management are terms that connect stability through the exercise of control and supervision. Hoadley (2017) adds that the principal or school head is commonly thought to be the school leader, however school leadership may include other persons such as members of a formal leadership team and other persons who contribute towards the aims of the school Teachers’ job performance are the duties performed by a teacher at a particular period in the school system in achieving organizational goals (Obilade, 2019).
Principals can therefore encourage effective performance of their teachers by identifying their needs and trying to satisfy or meeting them. How effective the principal is in performing these roles has been a matter of concern to many educationists (Aghenta, 2015). Research shows that many principals do not consider their leadership styles as crucial in the teachers’ effectiveness. Hence some of them seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools (Adeyemi, 2017). It is argued that effective leadership has a positive influence on the teaching effectiveness (Charlton, 2013).
Every leader in every organization performs certain roles/tasks for the smooth running of the organization and improvement of organizational performance. As a result, Ezeuwa (2015) sees it as the act of influencing people so that they strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the accomplishment of goals. In the same manner, Ukeje (2019) observes that leadership means influencing people to work willingly with zeal towards the achievement of the corporate goals. A leader cannot work alone; he must have people to influence, direct, carry along, sensitize and mobilize towards the achievement of the corporate goal. The manner that leader performs these roles and directs the affairs of the organization is referred to as his/her leadership style.
Leadership style therefore is the way a leader leads. Some leaders are more interested in the work to be done than in the people they work with while others pay more attention to their relationship with subordinates than the job. Whether a leader emphasizes the task or human relations is usually considered central to leadership style. Similarly, Chandan, (2017) asserted that leadership style is the ingredient of personality embodied in leader s that causes subordinates to follow them. Okumbe, (2018) on the other hand posited that a leadership style is particular behaviors applied by a leader to motivate subordinates to achieve the objectives of the organization. The school principal is in a unique position as the manager or administrator who controls schools’ resources for the purpose of achievements educational goals and can accelerate the process of schools development or can demolish the progress of education (Adeyemi, 2017). As such, a leadership style occupies an important position in school management. Leaders express leadership in many roles. These, among others, are: formulating aims and objectives, establishing structures, managing and motivating personnel and providing leadership (Daresh 2015).
Successful school principal have been taught to be flexible due to the different styles that are used in their administration process. The principal’s leadership style influences the efficiency and also the effectiveness of the teacher in the school system (Alageheband, 2017). Therefore, the Leadership style of a principal reflects on the principals’ behavior. This behavior is the main determinants of the teachers’ attitudes towards the teaching/learning process (Douglas, 2016). However, it is imperative that principals learn and understand the importance of the styles they adopt to enhance positive performance in the schools. As such, leadership style occupies an important position in school administration as the principal who controls schools’ resources used them resulted in positive achievement of educational goals (Adeyemi, 2017).
Basically, such achievements in secondary schools are dependent on three identifiable leadership styles namely; autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire (Lunenberg & Ornstein, 2015). It seems however that many principals have not considered their styles of leadership as determinants of teaching effectiveness in their schools. Teaching effectiveness could be described as the act of accomplishing or executing a given tasks by teachers. On the other hand (Obilade, 2019) asserted that teaching effectiveness are the duties performed by a teacher at a particular period in the school system in achieving educational goals.
Supporting this argument, (Adepoju, 2016) identified the variables of teaching effectiveness as effective teaching, lesson note preparation, effective use of scheme of work, effective supervision, monitoring of students’ work and disciplinary ability. The author added that these virtues should be upheld effectively in the school system by teachers for effective teaching and learning. In this regard, the teaching effectiveness of teachers could be measured through annual report of his/her activities in terms of performance in teaching, lesson preparation, and lesson presentation, mastery of subject matter, competence, commitment to job and extra-curricular activities.
Ibukun, (2017) argued that the main task of the principal is to create a conducive atmosphere for the teachers to be able to achieve desired changes in students. He noted that teachers perform effectively under different leadership styles. Ijaiya, (2014) remarked that teachers in Nigeria express a desire for more participation in decision-making in the school system. Therefore, principals as educational leader play a pivotal role in the success of the school. The successful implementation of the curriculum depends to a large extent, on delegation and sharing decision styles of principals that boost teachers’ job opportunities, satisfaction, career commitment and intention to complete the syllabus contents on terms scheduled. This then formed the background to this present study to investigate the effect of principals’ leadership styles on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Principals, as instructional leader, focus on helping teachers to improve their classroom performance and make academic instruction as their schools top priority. Principals need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate experiences in school leadership and management and/or should have a profile of possession of various trainings on school leadership and management so as to play active and effective leadership style in school improvement programs.
However, most principals are hardly seen in their offices executing their duties, they neither delegate duties nor fully communicate to their teachers. This seems to reduce the level of performance affecting the teaching and learning process and/or cause undesirable outcome such as failure of student in examination, repetition rate drop out as well as other instructional activities at schools. This backdrop therefore raises a question could the leadership style exhibited by the teacher influence the teaching effectiveness of the teachers? In the quest to provide answer to this question, a lot of researches have been conducted but none known by the researcher that has been conducted in Ikono Local Government Area during the period of this research. This motivated the researcher to investigate the effect of principals’ leadership styles on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to examine principals’ leadership styles on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study sought to:
- determine the influence of autocratic leadership style on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools.
- determine the influence of democratic leadership style on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools; and
- determine the influence of laissez-fair leadership style on teaching effectiveness of business studies teachers in secondary schools.
Principals’ Leadership Styles And Teaching Effectiveness Of Business Studies Teachers In Secondary Schools
1.4. Significance of the Study
The findings of this research have deep significance for the enhancement of secondary school teachers’ performance and satisfaction by prioritizing inside and outside performance in the study areas. Specifically the result of this research has the following importance for the school principals, teachers, students and others.
First, it may help the school leaders to be aware of the styles against the level of teacher performance and the practitioners’ principals to exercise efficient leadership styles so as to improve teachers’ effectiveness. It may help the school principals to revisit and enrich with new knowledge, theories, methodologies and practical behaviors leaders need in secondary schools and other institutions of learning in general for their motivating approach to make the teachers more effective.
The findings of this study would help the State Government to know principals’ leadership challenges and address them accordingly to enhance the principals’ styles in the schools. The findings of this study would help the Ministry of Education and other Educational Agencies in the State to know the importance of conducting seminar and workshop for principals and teachers in order to stress the importance of the democratic style of leadership to heads of schools.
Lastly it may serve as the reference and may call for further in-depth researchers on the topic, particularly principal leadership style and teachers’ motivation in the secondary schools.