ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to examine effect of Drug Abuse And Teaching Effectiveness In Social Studies Among Primary School Teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. Three research questions, which sought to find out the relationship between drug abuse and teaching effectiveness were raised and answered using data obtained through a questionnaire and were analyzed using simple percentage. Findings: – the following findings were made; Smoking of cigarette influence teaching effectiveness. Alcohol addiction influence teaching effectiveness.
Drug Abuse And Teaching Effectiveness In Social Studies Among Primary School Teachers
1.1 Background of the Study
The history of drugs illuminates the history of humanity and explores the long relationship between mankind and mind-altering substances. Use of drug is as old as the history of mankind. Almost all primitive and modern societies seem to have used some mood modifying drugs; and in some cases, it was only alcohol. Drugs are chemical substances (solid, liquid or amorphous substances) derived from plants, animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects (WHO, 2003). These substances by its chemical nature have an effect to open the body of higher nervous system (the mind) with a negative and positive effect (Linhadt, 2001). The effect of drugs has become endemic in our society to the extent that school teachers have also indulged themselves in drug abuse because of work-group influence and also imitation of conduct from friends who are themselves drug addict or ex-addict (Ajayi and Ekundayo, 2010).
Drug abuse, according to Ajayi and Ayodele (2002), is the wrong use or inappropriate use of chemical substances that are capable of changing functions of cells in the body. Bayer, as cited in Egbochuku and Akerele (2007), saw stimulants, which are substances that cause an increase in the activity of an organ in the body, as chemicals that excite certain activities of the central nervous system. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010) also saw drug abuse as over-dependence and misuse of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners.
Drug abuse is one of the social problems that confront almost every civilized society today. The drug problem is inherent in the social system and has exerted much pressure on individuals as well as various groups in the society (Higgins and Percy, 2007). Drug abuse is like a cankerworm and has affected the future and well-being of many youths. It is sad to note that despite the harmful impact of drugs on the lives of people its abuse and trafficking still gained grounds and has occupied a prominent place within a large segment of our society. Odejide (2009) noted that those drugs which exert their biochemical effects on the brain leading to sedation and changes in human behaviour are known as “Psycho-active substance” or “hard drugs.” Hence, the use of such hard drugs when they are not medically prescribed or when administered in excess constitute the phenomenon of “drugs abuse”.
It is pertinent to note that the abuse of psycho-active substances such as cocaine, cannabis and heroin, to mention just a few has assumed alarming proportion with current interest in illicit drug trafficking (Linhadt, 2001). The devastating physical, social and psychological effects of drugs among primary school teachers has cause serious plague, destroying our education system. These problems range from ineffective teaching among other social, psychological, economical and even physical problems. Describing teaching as the process whereby a specialized skill is used to develop normal knowledge in the learners the NPE (2014) explained that teachers are the possibility of people influencing one another through interactive experience. Hence, it is imperative to critically analyse those major factors capable of determining the teachers’ effectiveness as no educational system can rise above the quality of its teacher (NPE, 2014).
Effective teaching of social studies require that the learning environment is peaceful through the teacher by engaging the pupils in meaningful teaching-learning/rewarding activities, which are motivating, interest focused to arouse reflecting thinking and prompt learners contributions to the teaching learning process (Oshodi, Aina and Onajole, 2010). Ideally, a social studies classroom is expected to be teacher-learner centered. This symbiotic teaching relationship provides quality feedback for improving social studies instruction. Social studies instruction encapsulates the arrangement of contents, determination of set objectives, organizing learners’ activities and materials, evaluating and providing satisfactory learning experiences to stimulating learning and teaching processes for the realization of desirable changes in learners behavior (Mezieobi, 2009).
Campbell, Kyriakides, Muijs, and Robinson (2004) state, “Teaching effectiveness is the impact that classroom factors, such as teaching methods, teacher expectations, classroom organisation, and use of classroom resources, have on students’ performance”. Hence, the risk of exposure to drug has become one of the factors that influence teaching effectiveness among primary school teachers, owing to the fact that primary role of teachers is to inculcate skills, impart knowledge and establish sound moral values. Drugs and substance abuse has been associated with more severe addiction, delinquency, criminality, and psychological and behavioural problems.
Orlando, M. (2011) highlights the characteristics of an effective teacher to include respect for the students, creating sense of belonging in class, warmth and accessibility, setting high expectation for the students, love for learning, competence and qualification. Alas, these ideal qualities when not portray by a teacher becomes a traits to educational system thereby competing with existing academic agenda, taking into consideration what occurs in the classroom through the measure of effectiveness and students’ performance.
Accordingly, teaching itself is a two way communication but learning is more important than teaching because if teaching does not result in learning, it is futile. This implies that any teaching which does not result in a change in the bahaviour of learners is not teaching at all. Hence, teachers have been recognized as indispensable human resource and, indeed, the single most important element in the school system, more important than the quality of equipment and materials. Ferguson (2010) and Wenglinsky (2012), in different studies, found that the single largest factor affecting academic growth of students is differences in effectiveness of individual classroom teachers.
A study by Adeogun (2001) in Nigeria found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers which also determine their teaching effectiveness. Accordingly, the teachers are always blamed for the poor performance of students in the school (Umoren and Ogbodo, 2001). Hence, it is therefore imperative to examine the effect of drug abuse on teaching effectiveness among primary school teachers teaching social studies in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Drug abuse has become a social problem which needs to be investigated with every available means to ascertain the extent to which its abuse and trafficking pose a problem to education system. Many teachers in the primary schools who would have been useful to themselves, academic system, state and country at large are found suffering from one form of sedation and changes in behavior. It is noticed that drug addiction such as cigarette smoking and alcoholism are some of the rampant issues in concern, which hooked most of the teachers in primary schools in Nigeria. These affect their academic mind and alter the quality of their teaching consciousness. Cigarette and alcohol are regarded as gateway drugs. This is because of the tendency for users of the two to graduate into the use of stronger drugs like Marijuana, Cocaine and the narcotics such as heroin.
The abuse of drugs among primary school teachers in Akwa Ibom State in general and Nsit Ubium Local Government Area in particular has generated a lot of concern among education stakeholders, government, policy makers and non-governmental organizations. It is therefore pertinent to examine the effect of drug abuse on teaching effectiveness among primary school teachers teaching Social Studies in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate on drug abuse and teaching effectiveness in social studies among primary school teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
The specific purpose includes:
- To examined the effects of cigarette smoking among primary school teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
- To examined the effects of alcohol addiction among primary school teachers in Ubium Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to aid the study:
- To what extent does cigarette smoking affect teaching effectiveness among primary school teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area?
- To what extent does alcohol addiction affect teaching effectiveness among primary school teachers in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses (Ho) are stated to guide the study:
- There is no significant influence of cigarette smoking and teaching effectiveness in social studies among primary school teachers.
- There is no significant influence of alcohol addiction and teaching effectiveness in social studies among primary school teachers.
Drug Abuse And Teaching Effectiveness In Social Studies Among Primary School Teachers
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant in that it will reveal the effect of drug abuse on effective teaching of social studies among primary school teachers. The study will help to offer proper and useful suggestions on the implication of drug abuse among primary school teachers as follows:
- This study would also be significant to the future researchers as it will provide library reference materials.
- It will create awareness for teachers on the existing use of drugs with the view of devising possible methods of prevention.
- The study to a large extent will help the government and health organizations to be able to have laudable objectives on the control of drug abuse among the people in the society.
1.7 Delimitation of the study
The study will be limited to Primary school teachers in Nsit Ubium L.G.A of Akwa Ibom State. It was also delimited to drug abuse assessing the abused of cigarette and alcohol, its implications on effective teaching of social studies among primary school teachers.