ABSTRACT: This study examined Evaluation Techniques and Academic Achievement of Students in Secondary Schools. The study was carried out in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area to assess evaluation techniques adopted by teachers to improve the academic achievement of students in Business studies. To achieve this objective, two null hypotheses were formulated to give the study a guide; the hypotheses were derived from the specific objectives of the study, the survey research designed was adopted. The population of the study comprised of SS3 secondary school students offering Business Studies in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. A sample size of 100 respondents was chosen for the study using simple random sampling procedures.
The instrument for data collection was Evaluation Techniques and Academic Achievement of Students Questionnaire (ETAASQ). The data collected from the study were analyzed using t-test statistics. The result showed that formative evaluation techniques and peer evaluation techniques were the most effective techniques for the improvement of students’ academic achievement in Business Studies.
Evaluation Techniques And Academic Achievement Of Students In Secondary Schools
1.1 Background of the Study
Teaching is a goal directed exercise, once objectives are set the means to ascertain how well they have been attained must also be established. Evaluation is the process that attempt to determine a systematically and objectively as possible, the relevance effectiveness and impact of activities in the light of stated objectives.
Through assessment procedures, needed data about learners are gathered to pave way for sound judgement on their strengths and weaknesses. The increasing demands for accountability in education by staked holders have led to increase testing in all fields of learning with teachers focusing much on the curriculum with no serious effort at checking how learners learn and what they learn.
Assessment procedures are simply directed at acquisition of certificates generally insensitive to the improvement of teaching, learning and competence. However, the primary conception and function or education has changed since the colonial times.
In keeping Pace with the changes, Badmos (2001), have called for a redefinition of educational assessment in schools. According to him, evaluation procedures must shift from the paradigm of test and examinations which sample too narrow a range of what learners know to an assessment culture that calls for recognition of the characteristics of learners and the curriculum of the educational system. That is, evaluation procedures in addition to data for accountability and other legitimate purpose in ways that do not damage teaching and learning.
Similarly, Stiggin (2004) and Savage (2006), advocated the use of authentic assessment as a means for providing learners the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned, exhibiting critical thinking and performance skill of what they have learned in the proficient execution of about task in society.
Accordingly, it is the traditional practice in schools and colleges to assess the achievement of objectives, this task of establishing how quality and how well the process is expected to generate feedback data to enhance rational decision making about educational programmes.
Though a variety of devices and procedures to exist to systematically and objectively collect evidence of learners growth and progress, evaluation procedures adopted in school negate established standard and principles. This makes nonsense the huge investment in education learning to non-realization of stated goals Ololobou, (2006). However, in every learning and teaching situation, there is need to assess or evaluate how much has been learned or whether the teaching has been done properly. In the classroom, for example, the teachers use a number of ways to do this. Getting to the end of a lesson he may use questions to find out orally from learners the extent they have learned the lesson. He may give them small weekly tests to find out how much they have learned the lesson. At the end of the term, examinations are held to assess the learner’s performance in all their learning.
There are different ways of assessing students learning that help the teaching to be aware of the extent he has been effective in teaching them, Yoloye (2000) printed out a number of ways of evaluating teaching and learning in the classrooms. Some of these according to him include error analysis, self-evaluation, and peer evaluation in addiction to evaluation affective and psychomotor objectives. Based on this, the research was conducted on the evaluation techniques and academic achievement of students in Business studies in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor academic performance of student in school examinations keeps tasking the already inadequate human and materials resources in Nigeria educational system. This singular problem has added weight and has continued to militate against the realization of the objectives of our educational system.
Over the years, there have been public out-cry on the performance of students in internal and external school examinations at the secondary school level. In-fact, the issues of students’ under-performance in examinations has become worrisome.
Worried by the poor performance of students in examinations, researchers, scholars and well meaning individuals have made concerted efforts to investigate the root of the poor performance of students and rid our school system of those academic quagmire many of the researchers ever conducted have been on learners centered characteristics such as the study habit and attitude towards studies, gender, home background and school infrastructures, teaching-learning facilities among others with little or no emphasis on evaluation techniques in relation to the improvement of academic achievement of students in school. It’s against this backdrop of limited research work on evaluation techniques that this research project on evaluation techniques and academic achievement in business studies among secondary school students in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area was carried out.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The overriding objective of this study is to examine evaluation techniques that could improve academic achievement of students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
The specific objectives are to:
- Examine the difference in academic performance of students in Business Studies as regards to the use of formative evaluation techniques and summative evaluation techniques and summative evaluation techniques in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
- Examine the difference in academic performance of students in Business Studies as regards to the use of Peer evaluation and self evaluation techniques in practical Business studies in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
- to what extent does the use of formative evaluation and summative evaluation techniques affect the academic performance of students in Business studies in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area?
- To What extent does the use of peer evaluation and self-evaluation techniques affect the academic performance of students in Business Studies in Secondary school in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The understated hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objectives of the study to guide the research.
HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean academic performance of students in Business studies as regards to the use of formative evaluation technique and summative evaluation techniques in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean academic performance of students in Business studies as regards to the use of peer evaluation and self-evaluation techniques in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
Evaluation Techniques And Academic Achievement Of Students In Secondary Schools
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work will be of immense benefits to teachers, educationist, students, school administrators, researchers and stakeholders in the educational sector in the following ways:
- It will reveal if formative evaluation, summative evaluation, self-evaluation and peer evaluation will help in the improvement of academic achievement of students in Business Studies in Secondary schools.
- It will educate and enlighten teachers on evaluation techniques that will bring about better academic achievement of students and general improvement of the teaching-learning process.
- It will contribute to the body of existing knowledge and literature on evaluation techniques in relation to the improvement of students’ academic performance.
- Finally, it will serve as data bank and reference materials for further researchers on evaluation techniques.