Use Of Instructional Materials And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Schools

Use Of Instructional Materials And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Schools
Use Of Instructional Materials And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Schools

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to determine the Use of Instructional Materials and Its Effect on the Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Two hypotheses and two research questions were established to guide the study: Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The review of related literature was done under the following sub-headings: Concept of Instruction Materials, Instructional Materials Utilization and Pupils’ Interest in Learning, Instructional Materials and Pupils’ Performance and the Summary of literature review. The research design adopted in this research was quasi-experimental design. The population of the study consisted of 4,569 pupils in primary five (5) in public primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area with the sample size of one hundred and twenty pupils in primary five using stratified sampling technique.

The instrument used in the study for data collection was Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT) which contained twenty (20) objective questions (items) of multiple-choice. The data generated was analyzed using independent t-test at 0.05 level of significant. The findings revealed that instructional materials utilization has great influence on pupils’ performance in Social Studies.

Use Of Instructional Materials And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies in primary schools today is not absolutely new. The teaching of social science mostly social studies in particular requires the use of charts, images, pictures, and models to present information that can be interprets and used as a basis for action. Udo (2006) defined instructional materials as those information media that the teacher needs for his instructional process if he is to be effective.

Morris (2013) sees instructional materials as those things which are manipulated seen, heard, read, or talk about, plus instrument which facilitate such activity. From Udo’s view, instructional materials are informative; this means that they give additional information about or on what the teacher is presenting in the teaching learning process. According to (Yahiya, 2006), the utilization of instructional material during teaching and learning can arouse the interest of the pupils in studying social studies and in turn increase the performance of the pupils in social studies. It is disheartening to see that practicing teachers do not continue to utilize instructional material after teaching practice; the need for the utilization of concrete materials to facilitate learning in pupils cannot be over emphasized.

Instructional materials should be used when presenting lessons as these will quicken the relationship of concept rather than abstraction.  Instructional materials should be used when incorporating all teaching resources which provide direct and concrete experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional process (Davies, 2006).

Oftentimes, the availability of instructional material in classrooms or during lesson presentation is common, but the utilization of those instructional materials to meet the aim of those materials creating it, is difficult. In schools, most lessons are taught with the wrong materials, to inform the learners more or bring that which is seen as abstract to reality. The word “effective” implies something producing a desired or intended result. Therefore, for teaching/learning process to be effective, one must put everything in place. By these I mean that, the teacher should be able to select and use most appropriate instructional materials for each lesson. Worthy to note also, is the fact that objects include other materials which determine interest and learning abilities.

The influence of using instructional materials in promoting pupils‟ academic performance in teaching and learning in Educational development is indisputable. The teaching of Social Studies in Nigerian primary Schools needs to be properly handled. Social Studies contribute to the nation’s economic development, hence the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economical development. Today, teachers under rate the use of instructional materials in most of their teaching exercises and some of these materials are not usually available for teachers‟ use.

Most teachers cling to verbal instruction as the only way to impart knowledge. The researcher is of the view that something has to be done to change teachers’ negative attitude towards the teaching of Social Studies. The researcher is also of the view that utilization of instructional materials would make teaching and learning of Social Studies interesting and comparatively easy. This study is of the view that instructional materials for teaching Social Studies should be selected, supplied and be used effectively. The realization of this objective depends on the utilization principles. These principles include; the learner’s characteristics, behavioural objectives and instructional constraints. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality Education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified social studies teachers.

However, the use of instructional materials in primary schools would help in improving the teaching and learning and academic performance of pupils in social studies respectively. Instructional materials which are Educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales in Richard (2005), was of the opinion that availability and the use of instructional resources would make discovered fact glued firmly to the memory of pupils. Emmanuel (2008), also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lesson should do much to banish apathy, supplement in adequacy of books as well as arouse pupils’ interest by giving them something practical to see and do and at the same time helping to think things out themselves.

A better knowledge on how and when to use these materials is expected from all teachers if the teaching process is to be effective. Since the researcher has spent time in school observing the real situations, her concern in this context is to closely examine the use of instructional materials and its effect on the academic performance of students in selected schools.

Use Of Instructional Materials And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Schools

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Instructional materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But in spite of the benefits of instructional materials to teaching and learning, the scarcity of the instructional materials has hindered, to some extent, the efficiency of teaching and learning of Social Studies. In view of these difficulties, most teachers of Social Studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of Social Studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 2006).

It is observed that most teachers in primary schools in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the academic performance of pupils in Social Studies in primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. This study will examine use of instructional materials and its effect on the academic performance of students in selected schools.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.