Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students

Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students
Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students

Abstract: The study was to find out the Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students in Abak Local Government Area. The population of the study comprised of all the Senior Secondary School (SS2) students in the eleven (11) public secondary schools. A sample size of 120 SS2 students was chosen for the study. The sample was drawn from six (6) out of the eleven public schools using the simple random sampling technique. The design adopted for the study was quasi-experimental research design. The instrument for the study was “Biology Achievement Test (BAT)”. The method of data analysis adopted was independent t-Test. This was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study.

The result of the study showed that visual materials utilization enhances Students academic Achievement in Biology. It was therefore recommended among others that Science teachers, especially Biology teachers should be resourceful in the selection and utilization of visual aids that are useful in the concepts that they teach in each lesson and the teachers should be made to update their knowledge and skills in improvisation of visual materials through seminars, workshops and conferences organized by government and other professional bodies like Science Teacher Association of Nigeria (STAN).


Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students



1.1 Background to the Study

The utilization of instructional materials in promoting students’   academic performance is indisputable. The teaching of Biology in Nigerian Secondary Schools needs to be properly handled. Biology contributes to the nation’s economic development, here the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economic development. Moreso, that Biology is one of the vocational subject, it cannot be taught effectively without the use of appropriate instructional materials (Ajayi, 2018).

The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed conditions for an effective teaching and learning process. Other supporting materials should be provided. Using Audio-visual devices are hardware and software through which learning process is encouraged and carried out such includes; film strip, radio, television, slides etc. Its use is not peculiar in the Nigerian educational system but what is perhaps new, is the technological innovations and the great challenges which education pose to teaching/learning processed. In the past, marbles, cowries, beads etc. were used to effect teaching and learning in Nigeria.

Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of stimulation. Effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulate student’s interest in the subjects but also enhance their achievement in the examination. To achieve effective teaching and learning process, there is need for use of instructional materials. Instructional materials are important catalyst of social re-engineering and change in learners. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information. They motivate learners to learn more and more.  The role of instructional materials to ease teaching for desired behavioural changes cannot be overemphasized since it is needed in effecting the behaviour of learners. The teacher’s problem could hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.

Larson (2018), who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shifted from teacher to students-centered classes. Thus, the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The use of instructional materials results in more cooperative learning activities among  students. The success in the skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the instructional materials, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials (Olaiantan, 2019). 

Visual instructional materials include graphics, photographs, PowerPoint presentation, films, computer and television images etc. Duzgun (2010). Films are powerful visual tools that may visually present different places and events, offer unrivalled experiences and facilitate learning Norman (2000). Another visual materials, pictures and photographs are tools that make learning fun, motivate students to learn and enrich their imagination Werff (2013).

Den Beste (2013) stated that visual resources such as pictures and videos which help the visualization of various situations in the classroom. Den Beste also added that visual materials support written texts in all disciplines. Another visual materials, PowerPoint Presentations are also an idea tool for lesson presentation. They allow teachers to collect important information in one single file and then present it.

Science comprises the basic disciplines such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and Biology. Many investigation have shown that secondary schools students are exhibiting dwindling interest in science (Esiobu, 2005), Ikot (2018) observed that the poor performance of students in examinations may not be unconnected with non-utilization of suitable instructional materials. Poor academic achievement in biology could be attributed to many factors among which teachers strategy itself was considered as an important factors. This implies that the mastery of Biology concepts might not be fully achieved without the of instructional materials. Teaching of Biology without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Many teachers go to classes to teach Biology as liberal arts without any instructional materials to assist them or the learners.

Instructional materials are therefore the different teaching –learning aids which a teacher uses to facilitate teaching for the achievement of the stated objectives. Learning is facilitated when the learners make use of at least three of the sense organs namely seeing, hearing and touching. Ezegbe (2014) classified instructional materials into two as Visual material and audio visual materials.

In spite of the role of instructional materials in facilitating learning, students have failed to acquire the needed knowledge and skills in Biology. This study was conducted to show the influence of visual materials utilization on the achievement students in secondary schools.

Visual Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students


1.2     Statement of the Problem

The incessant use of word in the teaching and learning by the teachers to convey information to the students is one of the outstanding problems by the researchers. It is noted that students need a rich store of concrete sensory experience to aid understanding of their Learning experience. It is also noted that even in the midst of enough instructional materials, teachers cannot make optimum utilization of the available materials. They do not know when, how and where to use the material in teaching and learning process.

Most of the Biology Science teachers do not appreciate the role of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process, hence making learning very difficult for the students. Based on this, the researcher’s interest and commitment in investigating this subject is with a view to finding a lasting solution to the inherent poor performance in the subject. In a nutshell, the problem which has made this study necessary is the poor performance in Biology.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate Visual Material Utilization and students  Academic Performance in Biology among secondary School students. Specifically, the study intends to determine:

  1. the difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using visual materials and those taught without
  2. the difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught with visual materials according to gender?

1.4     Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in the following ways:

  1. It will help curriculum planners when reviewing the curriculum to seriously lay emphasis on the utilization of instructional materials.
  2. It will also help Biology teacher to effectively utilize instructional materials in their teaching and learning processes in order to spur up students interest.
  3. It will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among Biology teachers as they will have to think of and select relevant materials and utilize them.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught Biology using visual materials and those taught without visual materials
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Biology using visual materials.
About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.