Abstract: This research examined the Influence of Family Background on the Academic Performance of Biology Students in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To guide the study, research questions were formulated. Ten public secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area were used for the study. Instrument used for the study was a questionnaire and Biology Achievement Test (BAT). The population for the study was all the SS3 Biology student which was a total of about four hundred and thirty two (432) students and forty two (42) Biology teachers and a sample size of one hundred and ten (110) respondent were used making up of ten (10) teachers and one hundred students (100). Two sampling technique was adopted for the study which were purposive sampling for teachers and random sampling technique for students.
The data collected for this study was analyzed on the basis of the hypotheses formulated for the study. Pearson product moment correlation was used as the statistical technique for data analysis. The study however revealed that socio-economic background, educational background and family size have profound effects on biology teaching in secondary schools. It concluded that these family Background considered in this study have great influence on Biology teaching in secondary schools, summary was made and recommendations were considered, that teachers should be aware and discourage some negative tendencies that are likely going to influence the academic pursuit of Biology teaching in secondary schools.
Influence of Family Background on the Academic Performance of Biology Students
1.1 Background to the Study
The family is one the functional groups in the society which everyone comes from. There must be sense of relationship in the family among its members to portray such behavior or relationship before members will start to relate with people outside.
According to Kreppner and Lerner (1989), the approach of the family from the child perspective concerns with the nurture versus nature, the flexibility of the child at different ages to being molded by the family and the relative outcomes of the family Background. Student engagement in school is regarded current and valued Background despite the lack of empirical studies on its relationship with specific family Background.
Every parent wants his or her child to do well in school. Parents expect their children to imbibe acceptable norms, values and attitude of the society. The society in general expects her citizens to be loyal and literate. This is why the formal national policy on education in 2002 has among its aim to inculcate the right type of value and attitudes in the child. The school is the mirror of the society and parents depend upon the school to make their children what they are supposed.
Many informed Nigerians, government and educationists are deeply worried over the problem of poor academic performance in schools as reported in the 2013 Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Examination Results (JAMB). They argued that if the issue of poor academic performance in Nigerian schools is left unchecked on our school sector that the aims and objectives of education as stipulated in the national policy on education in 2006 would perpetually remain an illusion. It is necessary to note that the school is not the only agency for the education of the child. Parental background of the child equally plays significant role and there is a family school relationship model (Ryan and Adams, 2011).
It is within the family that the child acquires and organizes his first experienced and then move to the school for his or her secondary experienced (Ryan 2010). It is also proven fact that intelligence and most types of ability are not necessary innate, but that they are usually modified by environmental factors such as learning motivation, nutrition and encouragement of both parents and schools (Spencer and Aber, 2004).
The present research studies on the correlation between family Background and Biology teaching in school, specifically hinted on these Background that will make the teaching of Biology to be more effective in secondary schools. In order to describe the state of art of students’ engagement in school, that is how students participate in school activities will be affected by their family Background. For instance, ignorance of the parents on the use and provision of adequate educational materials for their children may cause student to be ill-equipped and they could result in poor academic performance of the children in school. These family Background have also brought serious frustration on students, parents, social status and educational background can affect students’ Academic performance either positively or negatively, a students’ intellectual development.
Students’ poor academic performance reflects on the parental background. Such homes are characterized by poor communication, lack of privacy and over crowdedness. Such employment does not pose a challenge to children educational aspirations according to Hawks (2015). The homes constitute the immediate environment into which a child is born. Isakson and Jarvis (2009), see family Background in two aspects, parental involvement (provisions of resources) and autonomy support seeing the students as active individuals, these aspects are of greats interest since they contribute to the students’ autonomy to carry out academic activities and to maintain a good and strong sense of competence.
A study published by William (2014) on Biology teaching, improved family Background have an impact on a child academic work. Furthermore Udo (2004) stressed that the relationship between family Background and Biology teaching, a teacher has to guide the students especially when the students are in groups to learn with different individuals differences from their families. Some research work on Ekpe (2015) affairs that highly educated parents are more likely to give their children practice at home, take real interest in their progress and function as their achievement model. Family expected to foster value orientation in children, it dimension and frequency in recent years leaves on doubts as to what will become of our society in the nearest future (Inyang 2004). According to Ekpo (2003) family is a home where the husband, wife and children live together in peace, love and harmony. It is the family that provides the ideal environment for children to receive the necessary training.
Some family are organized while some are disorganized, this is as the result in family Background involved. Isichie (1996) stated that organized family Background successfully achieve the inculcation to the children while unorganized family contributes to indiscipline. This disorganization may be viewed in form of divorce separation, desertion, gross parental neglect etc.
Lovell (2004) opines that other factors in family could include, general standard of living, medical and health care, nutrition and motivation. The moral and emotional condition of the home may equally affects academic work. Polygamous homes are sometimes overcrowded and noisy, making it difficult for a child to find a suitable place to study.
Lovell (2004) also opines that conditions such as each of environmental stimulation may result in dullness and dull children are likely to be backward in most school subjects especially Biology. Balnieced (2004) maintained that occupation of parents, social status, parent’s religious beliefs, political power and prestige may have a consideration effects on the difficulty with which the child can gain a place among peers in school. Perceptual defect that is perceptual modality make up may affect the child in school. A child background affects his perception and his personality development.
The school will be fighting a lost battle if these Background are not given adequate consideration. The family Background that will be looked into this study are socio-economic background, family size and educational background. It is against this back drop that this study is carried out to examine the extent to which these family Background affects Biology teaching in secondary school in Ikono Local Government Area.
Influence of Family Background on the Academic Performance of Biology Students
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Biology is one of the pure science subjects taught by science teachers in secondary schools. Teachers have tried to impact the knowledge of Biology into the students. It gives the student a firm understanding of the morphology and basic life process of a wide variety of organisms, student who wish to further needs to have the foundation in Biology.
Unfortunately the public opinion about the teaching of Biology standard of education has fallen. Again, the view that affects mental development of the children and their performance in the school has been a subject of concern and controversy for years. Whether this is a problem that will continually face the challenging nature of students’ interest, attitude, ability and aptitudes is the task of this research work to establish. These concerns have been expressed by parents, individual and groups who have interest in pure science generally and Biology in particular about this dismal performance several Background have been considered but the researchable is interested in examining those Background responsible for this situation. The researcher’s interest and commitment investigating the continuous existence of the problem is timely with view to findings lasting solution to the subject in secondary schools.