Home Environment and Academic Performance of Pupils in Social Studies

ABSTRACT: This study was to examine Home Environment and Academic Performance of Pupils in Social Studies. The population of the study comprises of three senior primary schools in area and a total of four thousand two hundred and three (4,203) pupils. The sample size of the pupils was ninety (90) made randomly selected from the 3 schools in the area. In conducting the study two research hypotheses were postulated and tested through simple T-test. Questionnaire and social studies achievement test was used for data collection.

The finding revealed that parental educational level and income level exerted significant influence on the academic achievement of their children. It was concluded that pupils from high educational background and income level perform better than pupils from the low educational background and low income level. Finally, it was recommended that parents should encourage their children to excel academically by being interested in their academic growth and by providing the necessary learning materials.

Home Environment and Academic Performance of Pupils in Social Studies




1.1     Background to the study

The home is where every child is born into and makes first interactions (Ekpo, 2004). These interactions can contribute in shaping the feelings, emotions and attitudes of the child permanently. The destiny of mankind depends on the child and the welfare of the child is closely linked to the family in terms of the innate tendencies drawn from the genetic transcription and the family environment.

Some authorities hold that a child’s academic underachievement is a function of his/her characteristics and the forces operating in the learning environment (Isangedighi, 2005, Ogbodo, 2004).

This environment includes the home, the school and the society in which the child finds his/herself. The importance of the home in the life of the child has been variously acknowledged by researchers (Maduokonoam, 2003, Uwe, 2005). The home actions or inactions generally have far reaching effect on the child’s academic achievement.

Common among these home related factors are parents imposition of subjects on their wards in spite of the latter’s poor aptitude for the subject; non monitoring at home of students academic progress, lack of provision in many homes for educational needs of students, physical amenities of the home, poor parental control, parental occupation, parental educational level, family size, educational aspiration of the parents in the child’s work, and the child’s birth order (Bajah, 2006, Momoh, 2003, Ochepa, 2004).

Other home related factors include early derivation, rejected, overindulgence, overprotection, broken homes, death of either or both of the parents, siblings rivalry, and family economic background. The variables usually impact significantly those of the adolescents (Bakare, 2005, and John, 2006: Tucker and Asser, 2003, Ogbodo, 2004).

The environment in which the child finds his or herself can either make the child generations after generations geniuses die without being noticed as a result of their circumstances of birth. Social studies is subject taught primary and junior secondary schools. Primary education as contained in the National Policy on Education (NPE) is the education given in institution for children aged 3 to 10 years plus (NPE, 2004).

Since the result of the education system is built upon it, the primary level is the foundation and hence the key to the success or failure the system. The duration shall be six years (NPE, 2004). Unfortunately, some pupils drop out on the way of age according to Haggai and Mang (2003.

The researchers attributed this observation in parts, to parents related factors such as poverty, early marriage, persist end academic underachievement, family responsibilities and sickness in the family. This study is particularly concerned with effect of parent’s economic background on the academic performance of pupils in Social studies. It will also considered the effect of educational level of parents on the academic performance of pupils in the subject.

This second variable is considered necessary because the levels of educational attainment determines to a high extent the type of work parents engaged in, hence the economic background of the of the home. Social studies try to integrate one action of man and his environment with another. It achieves a true understanding of man.

Academic performance of students in social studies have been influenced by a number of factors, these include the quality of teachers, availability of instructional materials and media, attitude of students and social factors at home Aniedi (2009), Kinder (2010) stated that, the home plays a highly significant role in the intellectual development of the child, (Ekong, 2008) noted that, the family is man’s starting point in the larger society he finds himself. It is very important to the total make up the child. He further supported that the family therefore remain the significant group to which one is attached throughout life. Irrespective of their parent’s encouragement, children needs encouragement to excel and expose their talents and when this is lacking, negative consequences may develop. Social interaction starts from the home and expands as the child ascends the educational ladder.


Home Environment and Academic Performance of Pupils in Social Studies

1.2     Statement of the problem

The importance of education has a long lasting impact on one’s life. For instance, the acquisition of knowledge and skills and all other all things that is worthwhile which are transmitted to a person through formal and informal education determines his or her potential in future.

Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence of home environment on the academic performance of pupils in social studies.

Basically, we understand that home is the first school for a child where he or she is taught the basic norms and values by parents before the child leaves for the formal education. Contrary to popular opinion, learning and reading begin in school but the first foundation of the child begins at home Ekong (2013).

The complain about the failure in social studies among primary school pupils in internal and external examination in Ibiono Ibom Local Government  Area of Akwa Ibom State has become complex in the state.

The research will be a comparative study because it sought to investigate the extend to which environmental factors in the home such as family structure, interpersonal relationship, materials available, parental educational level, income level, home atmosphere and parental discipline influence pupils  academic performance  in social studies in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

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