ABSTRACT: The study investigated Home Factors and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students. The population of the study consist of 1,873 students in SS2 class in all the six (6) public secondary schools in the study area. Three research questions were raised and three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature related to the study was reviewed. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of Two Hundred  respondents were selected from five  public Secondary Schools under the study area using stratified sampling techniques. The main instrument used for data collection for the study was Economics Achievement Test (EAT). The result from the instrument was analyzed statistically using independent t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significant. Findings from the study revealed that students whose parents are highly educated performed better academically than those whose parents are not highly educated, also students whose parent income is high performed better academically than those from low income parents, finally, students whose parents has better occupation performs better than students whose parents do not have better occupation.
Home Factors and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students
1.1 Background to the Study
Education, in its broadest sense, is a process designed to inculcate knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to enable individuals to cope effectively with their environment. Its primary purpose is to foster and promote the fullest individual self-realization for all people. It is indispensable to normal living, without education the individual would be unqualified for group life. According to Aremu (2000), education is the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individuals as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. Notably, it is often said to be the powerful tool for developing intellectual abilities, shaping cultural attributes, acquiring knowledge and skills as well as a favourable tool to move a nation towards developing it scientific and technological culture.
A home is a place where one lives permanently, especially as a member of a home or household. It is a place of residence or refuge. A home is not a mere transient shelter. Its essence lies in the personalities of the people who live in it. Home factors comprise of all human and materials factors that affect an individual development in the home where one live.
According to Anene, (2005) home factors are the aggregate of all internal and external conditions affecting the existence, growth and welfare of organisms. It is an influence an individual came in contact with after the hereditary has been through the gene plasma. The home as a basic social unit of the society is the first social group that a child meets on earth. A number of conditions prevailing in the home have some effects on child’s upbringing and his way of behaving. Hence, the social climate or environment in which an individual finds him or her to a large extent determines his or her behaviour and personality development. Home factors have been of a great important in shaping the performance of children in schools worldwide. This is because academic performance is usually as a result of motivation that children get from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life.
Home factors comprises of the level of education of parents, parental socio-economic status, home size and other factors which are essential aspects in development of student’s personality and academic function (Higbea & Thompson 2010). The socio-economic status of parents is capable of affecting the behaviour of the children and determines their aspiration. Parents with high socio-economic status often have more success in preparing their children for school because they typically have access to wide range of providing their young children with high quality child-care, books and encourage children in various learning activities at home. They also have easy access to information regarding their children’s health, as well as social, emotional and cognitive development (Ojo and Yilma 2010), Ojo and Yilma also noted that in all socio-economic groups, parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and education for their children and these challenges are more pronounced in poor families. This, according to them, is because sometimes, when the basic necessities are lacking, parents must place top priority on housing, food, clothing and health care, regarding education materials and books as luxuries.
Parents’ education is another home background factor which influences the academic achievement of students. Students under motivated condition, exhibits purposeful behaviour aimed at achieving academic set goals. The achievement of these goals determines the motive. The situational perspective according to the scholars focuses on learning context. These scholars further identified to factors that greatly influence students’ motivation. These are: interpersonal factors such as curiosity, perseverance, and autonomy (intrinsic-factors) and environmental factors such as parents, peers and sibling (extrinsic factors).
Research shows the supportive and attentive parenting practices positively affect academic achievement (Eamon, 2005). In addition, high parental aspirations have been associated with increasing students’ interest in education (Majoribanks, 2005). The effect of parental motivation and involvement in their children’s school has on academic achievement is less clear (Domina 2005), parental motivation and involvement in school has been linked to both positive and negative influences on academic achievement (McNeal, 2001, Domina, 2005). Explanations for this discrepancy are not conclusive. It is thought that the type of involvement and motivation may make a difference and that in some cases parents become involved after their child has already had academic difficulties (Domina, 2005). Parental occupation is also an important home factor that influences academic achievement of students. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate home factors influence students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools students.
Home Factors and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the zeal of parents to send their children to school, most time cannot meet up with necessary support to accomplish it; academic performance of students varies from one individual to another. For example, some students withdraw from school without completing their course work even at the secondary level. This situation has attracted a lot of research work into the causes of differences in academic or school performance among students.
Generally, in the phase of educational system, success is measured by the learners’ performance or how well a child meets the standard set out by educational institution. The menace of failure among the young school pupils has stared the parent’s, government and other stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources. Most pupils in primary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in their subject in schools.
The government, parents, teachers and pupils blame one another for pupils’ poor performance in schools. Parents blame teachers for lack of dedication to duties. The teachers blame government for poor salaries hence they are poorly motivated, parents also accuse government for not equipping the schools with learning materials, government blame parents for not doing good home work and the pupils are blamed for lack of discipline and dedication to their studies. It was on this background that the researcher was interested to examine Home Factors and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students.