College of Education Cannot Function Without Research Method of Environment Development

College of Education Cannot Function Without Research Method of Environment Development
College of Education Cannot Function Without Research Method of Environment Development

College of Education Cannot Function Without Research Method of Environment Development



College of Education as well as any other institution of learning cannot function without research method of environment development due to the fact that, research is an imperative area in not just the field of education but in other fields as well. It purifies the workings and the lives of the individuals. It primarily focuses upon improving quality and is a search for knowledge. It shows how to make provision of solutions to problems in a scientific and methodical manner. It is a systematic effort to acquire new knowledge in all disciplines.

Research has become such a prevailing phenomenon of our civilisation that all of us are impacted by it. Scholars and practitioners of various academic disciplines and professions engage in research. Students do not progress very far in our formal education system without encountering the necessity to do some type of research. Research is conducted in many settings, laboratories, classrooms, libraries, the city streets, and foreign cultures, just to mention a few. A lot of research is now done by computer.

Graduate students may find it difficult, at least early in a graduate programme to identify with research situations and to key into a process of conducting research. It may be that the only motivation for taking a research methods course and for engaging in research at all is that they are required in the graduate programme. Expertise and experience for conducting research are limited, so the necessity for this course.

No course, no matter how well designed can be expected to confer research competence, nor can any book, present all relevant information. Research skills and understanding are achieved only through the combination of a course like this and experience.

Educational research is a more formal, focused and an intensive process of carrying out a scientific method of analysis.

The main purpose of educational research is focused upon scientific investigation and provide solutions to the problems in the field of education. Research in education represents an activity, directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which educators are concerned.

Research in education has enabled substantial progress to be made in curriculum development and reform, educating slow learners, understanding the psychological traits of the physically challenged individuals and in adapting methods of instructions to the needs of individual learners.

Research in education has rendered an imperative contribution in acquiring information regarding different cultures, norms and values. The individuals have made substantial contributions through research to their knowledge and generation of awareness, understanding administrative leadership and behaviour, group procedures, classroom atmosphere, interaction analysis, self-concept, levels of aspiration, deprivation and racism, educational inequality and the deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward sections of the society.

The need for research activities becomes imperative, which will support education to achieve its goals and objectives, rebuild confidence in public schools, adapt to cultural diversity, educate for self-identity and individual realization, re-establish faith in human, moral and democratic values, bring about changes in racial attitudes, achieve the goals of quality and relevance, and meet the challenges of the future world of accelerating scientific and technological change (Boykin, 1972).


The term “Research” is used to cover a broad spectrum of meaning in everyday speech; this makes it a confusing word for the students – especially those who must learn to use the word in its specialised denotation.

When it comes to matter of research, the situation of the average consumer – primary or secondary school teacher, counsellor or administrator is not much different from that of the graduate student. In fact, a considerable portion of the graduate student population is often made up of school personnel pursuing graduate degrees on a part-time basis. But regardless of degree requirements, research is done for the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena, and in the case of educational research, those that impact upon teaching and learning and the operation of the schools. There is an inherent assumption that educational research, by providing a better understanding of the education process will lead to the improvement of educational practice.

Decision making in the schools is based on a combination of experience, expert opinion and research results, and the professional educator should be knowledgeable about research methodology and results. Often the students who spend the whole day in the library making notes from textbooks and other publications or the one who visits many websites in the computer or another who manages through available sources to retrieve some information all claim to be doing research. Research has been defined by many scholars, science educators and others.

Leedy (1997) defines research as the systematic process of collecting and analysing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. Leedy goes on to state what research is not. Research is not mere: information gathering; transformation of facts from one location to the other; rummaging for information; and catchword to get information.


Functional education is quite different from the concept of education. While Education simply refers to the process by which knowledge and skills are acquired, Functional  Education is more encompassing, meaningful and most desirable. This is because it is the type of education that equips the recipient with the knowledge and skills needed for that performance of productive task, !t is one that helps the society meet their developmental needs. Good (1999) defines functional education as: Education for which there is an anticipated application, which thus assumes that the learner has immediate meaning, transferable into action of his learning activities.

Cookey as cited in Akumah (1998) defines functional education as the education in which the ability to perform productive tasks is more emphasized than the education that aims at producing ideological conformity. It is a kind of education that emphasizes practice more than theory. Cookey posits further that the Nigerian education has not been functional because too much emphasize has been placed on theoretical and academic knowledge. There is undue emphasis on the possession of certificates instead of on what one can do. Buttressing this fact, Ukeje (1992) states that:

The educational processes are geared primarily to preparing candidates for examinations. Through this process of education, the products acquire knowledge and facts with little real understanding and without saleable skills. The result of this dysfunctional education is that schools turn out graduates without useful knowledge and skills and who become alienated from their own environment.


To advance on this argument meaningfully, it is pertinent to look deeply into the various importance plays by research in area of educational development of the institution, in which without research it would have been possible. Research is a scientific and systematic investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. On the other hand education is regarded as the aggregate of all the processes by which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior of practical values in the society in which she or he lives.

Research is undertaken in education with a view to improving instruction and education in general. By its nature, it is expected that policies, -structures, methods and curricular will be improved and refined so that educational process and the educational system will become more efficient and more effective. Education system is recognised as a dynamic but crises-laden institution which needs to be reviewed constantly for improvement and necessary changes. This review can be carried out by means of researcher in order to find out areas of weaknesses, the nature of these weaknesses or faults and the extent to which these faults affect educational system and consequently, possible solutions found .

The benefits of research in which college education cannot function without have been stated as follows: (Pramodini& Sophia, 2012).

            Research provides assistance to the individuals to acquire an understanding of any subject and its principals in much better and manageable way, which will encounter new questions and search for answers to those questions. These will enable the researchers to learn theories in any subject.

            Research means trying something out of the box. When it is done, such things it will separate one from other students, which will certainly acquire the attention of the tutors as well, which in turn benefit great need of assistance from someone, who is more knowledgeable than the other.

            Research is not always given utmost significance by the practitioners, managers and policy makers. On frequent basis, it is observed as an academic activity, conducted by others to the profession, and not with the profession. Research is primarily an integral part of any task or function, particularly in higher educational institutions.

            Research education professionals are always learning, finding out things, analysing information, adapting their behaviour in accordance to the information received, looking to improve and familiarizing with modern demands.

            Practitioners have to observe policies and rules, when they are conducting research. The use of research methods can be adapted by the teachers in accordance to the needs and requirements of the individuals and the field of study.

            As teachers are responsible, the public must have faith in the profession. In India, individuals belonging to different categories and backgrounds have recognized the significance of education and aspire to attain education, in order to make their living efficient. The acquisition of education primarily depends upon the financial position of the individuals. If they can afford, they can even send their children to reputed higher educational institutions, on the other hand, when they cannot afford, they are not able to provide even for the transportation costs to help their children commute to schools. The attitudes of the individuals towards acquisition of education vary across most of the social groups, so the performance of the teachers can be confirmed through the publication of research findings.

            Teachers plan their own personality upon learning experiences. Sometimes this isinstinctive and these decisions can either be efficacious or fail. Research methodologies provide tools and machinery to the teachers to conduct an analysis and make informed decisions regarding their practice.

            Research helps in creating co-ordination and mutual understanding between the individuals. The individuals are able to share their ideas and viewpoints with each other and work together as a team. Individuals can conduct research personally, but in most cases, two or more individuals are involved together in conducting research. Quite often research looks backwards and there are lessons that need to be learned.


  1. Educational research plays a crucial role in knowledge advancement across different fields of study. 
  2. It provides answers to practical educational challenges using scientific methods.
  3. Findings from educational research; especially applied research, are instrumental in policy reformulation. 
  4. For the researcher and other parties involved in this research approach, educational research improves learning, knowledge, skills, and understanding.
  5. Educational research improves teaching and learning methods by empowering you with data to help you teach and lead more strategically and effectively.
  6. Educational research helps students apply their knowledge to practical situations.

Educational Research Methods 

  • Surveys/Questionnaires

A survey is a research method that is used to collect data from a predetermined audience about a specific research context. It usually consists of a set of standardized questions that help you to gain insights into the experiences, thoughts, and behaviors of the audience. 

Surveys can be administered physically using paper forms, face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations, or online forms. Online forms are easier to administer because they help you to collect accurate data and to also reach a larger sample size.

In order to gather accurate data via your survey, you must first identify the research context and the research subjects that would make up your data sample size. Interviews

An interview is a qualitative data collection method that helps you to gather information from respondents by asking questions in a conversation. It is typically a face-to-face conversation with the research subjects in order to gather insights that will prove useful to the specific research context. 

Interviews can be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured. A structured interview is a type of interview that follows a premeditated sequence; that is, it makes use of a set of standardized questions to gather information from the research subjects. 

An unstructured interview is a type of interview that is fluid; that is, it is non-directive. During a structured interview, the researcher does not make use of a set of predetermined questions rather, he or she spontaneously asks questions to gather relevant data from the respondents. 

A semi-structured interview is the mid-point between structured and unstructured interviews. Here, the researcher makes use of a set of standardized questions yet, he or she still makes inquiries outside these premeditated questions as dedicated by the flow of the conversations in the research context. 

Data from Interviews can be collected using audio recorders, digital cameras, surveys, and questionnaires. 

  • Observation

Observation is a method of data collection that entails systematically selecting, watching, listening, reading, touching, and recording behaviors and characteristics of living beings, objects, or phenomena. In the classroom, teachers can adopt this method to understand students’ behaviors in different contexts. 

Observation can be qualitative or quantitative in approach. In quantitative observation, the researcher aims at collecting statistical information from respondents and in qualitative information, the researcher aims at collecting qualitative data from respondents. 

Qualitative observation can further be classified into participant or non-participant observation. In participant observation, the researcher becomes a part of the research environment and interacts with the research subjects to gather info about their behaviors. In non-participant observation, the researcher does not actively take part in the research environment; that is, he or she is a passive observer


We consider key ideas of critical thinking and decision making to be about the principal traits which any worthwhile process of education should lead to in a learner. As elaborately discussed in Nosich (2005), critical thinking in a discipline is in effect ‘learning to think things through’ and involves a set of elements and standards of critical reasoning and evaluation of learning and its applications. This is especially the case with disciplines that emphasise mindful doing e.g. statistics, mathematical sciences in general, management and the professions.

The key aim is to get students to ‘think critically about the subject matter they are studying’ and the world in terms of that subject matter. This way critical thinking facilitates active learning and problem-solving and is of more benefit to the student and wider society when the student learns how to learn, so as to be able to connect a core discipline to related disciplines in which a problem lives. For example, if a problem is underpinned by stochastic modelling and financial analysis, then a functionally intelligent graduate of statistics will use such skills to ascertain and review important concepts in financial management needed for an authentic solution to the problem. On the other hand, a graduate with skills limited to statistics will find it difficult to do the same.

            A useful model of critical thinking discussed in Nosich (2005), Paul and Elder (2001, 2002) consists of two parts – the elements of reasoning and the standards of critical thinking. The elements are the central concepts of reasoning itself and comprise of eight parts to understanding a situation or solving a problem, namely: [point of view, purpose, question at issue, assumptions, implications and consequences, information, concepts, conclusions and interpretations].

These parts are considered for different alternatives to a problem and within a specified context in which a problem occurs. There are seven key standards of critical thinking: [clearness, accuracy, importance and relevance, sufficiency, depth, breadth and precision].

Critical thinking through a discipline requires students to learn to use the central logic of the discipline and the above elements and standards in fully understanding and dealing with problems amenable to the discipline.

There are three parts to the process of critical thinking based on these elements, namely asking intelligent questions about a situation, trying to answer the questions by reasoning them out and believing the results of the reasoning. Students should be trained at various stages in a curriculum and within specified course units or modules to ask such questions as: What are some alternative ways of solving a problem assigned? What is a good way to begin? Do I have all the information I need? What is the purpose behind the problem? How does it fit into a real context? Does the problem even make sense? The benefit of using real-life problems and case studies is that the student learns to ask these questions themselves as different from assigned (text-book) problems, which the teacher have already structured. The spirit in which the questions are asked gives substance to the questions and aspects of the problem they relate to.

As explained in Nosich (2005), the following is a list of questions that students should be asking in their courses: How does the learning from the course relate to my own experience? How can I use what I learn here in my own life? Can I think up my own examples? How does this subject-matter relate to other courses that I am taking? What is the evidence behind this? How do the topics in the course fit together? What is the purpose of the course? Asking such questions is fundamental to reasoning in diverse contexts such as in a programme of studies and life in general.

To achieve this capacity, students should overcome two main difficulties in reasoning. The first is that when presented with a problem people just respond from general experience and belief and not from concerted and methodical reasoning. The second is that people do not know the difference between reasoning through something and other ways of responding. Hence, in statistics, for example, we need to build the skills of structured reasoning into the modules we teach, using the framework of the elements and standards discussed in this paper.

Etymologically, intelligent education trains the mind and body of a learner, sharpens the intellect, itself defined by the Oxford Reference English Dictionary as ‘the faculty of reasoning, knowing and thinking, as distinct from feeling’. It should be stressed that critical thinking is by this definition not equivalent to use of the intellect alone, but includes a learner’s feelings and perceptions mediated by the context of an investigation.

In summary, therefore, the image of a perceptual graduate from a discipline is one in which the graduate is successfully on the journey to attaining this Holy Grail, to becoming integrally intelligent. We now discuss how immersion in a discipline helps this process, using statistical science as an example, but remembering that the insights apply to all other disciplines, especially mathematical sciences e.g. mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering.


The school curriculum has students bouncing from the sciences to mathematics to geography to social studies, having dates, numbers, and facts relentlessly drummed into them in compartmentalised subjects. All without the students having had the benefit of those two most essential lessons of all – learning how to learn, and learning how to think [critically] – while tackling projects that challenge them to bring their minds to bear on complex real problems’. This is the reason case studies and problem-based learning are popular, especially in business programs. The authors recommend the need for learners to learn how to think logically and creatively; the need to use a mixed mode to deliver learning programs e.g. a mode  that embraces all senses and excites all intelligence.

To support this point, Meier (2000) explains that good learning flows from a learning program which is SAVI – Somatic (as it involves learners physically doing things), Auditory (as it involves learners hearing ideas talked about and rephrasing meaning by talking), Visual (as it uses pictures, graphics, fishbone diagrams and mind-maps etc) to portray meaning, and Intellectual (as it involves problem solving and critical reflection). The focus of schooling must be broadened from the acquisition of knowledge to include the development of wisdom, character and emotional maturity’. This reminds us of the concepts and applications of emotional and spiritual intelligence, Goleman (1999).

As examples of these ideas, we know that excellent management consultants and fund managers exhibit such skills and play the labour market to their advantage. We have seen university dons ‘blur’ teaching, research and consultancy to a new level of creativity, based on a corporate academic business model. Hence, they teach excellently and with passion, research their way through to great results in their chosen fields, and are academic entrepreneurs who roll off great texts and successfully sell their skills to industry and business. It is clear that the quantum of progress made in these undertakings is a function of the depth, scope and quality of critical  thinking and decision-making which is research methods.


College of education cannot function without research method of environment given the various importance plays by research in area of educational development of the institution, in which without research it would have been possible.

Research is undertaken in education with a view to improving instruction and education in general. By its nature, it is expected that policies, -structures, methods and curricular will be improved and refined so that educational process and the educational system will become more efficient and more effective. Education system is recognised as a dynamic but crises-laden institution which needs to be reviewed constantly for improvement and necessary changes. This review can be carried out by means of researcher in order to find out areas of weaknesses, the nature of these weaknesses or faults and the extent to which these faults affect educational system and consequently, possible solutions found .


Ezepue, P. O. (2005a) Optimisation of Human and Academic Potential Part 1: A Case Study in Academic Career Planning, Proceedings of the 2005 Hawaii International Conference on  Statistics, Mathematics and Related Fields, January 9-11, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Ezepue, P. O. (2005b) Optimisation of Human and Academic Potential Part 2: A Performance Management Approach, Proceedings of the 2005 Hawaii International Conference on Statistics,

Mathematics and Related Fields, January 9-11, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Goleman, D. (1999) Working with Emotional Intelligence, People Books Ltd.

Grix J. (2004) The Foundations of Research, Palgrave-Macmillan

Handy, Charles (1996) Beyond Certainty: The Changing Worlds of Organisations, Arrow Business Books

Kuhn, T. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd Edition, University of Chicago Press.

Pramodini, D.V., & Sophia, K.A. (2012). Evaluation of Importance of Research Education. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 1(9), 1-6.

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